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Fischer, although their views were not in every respect identical, loved and esteemed each other very highly. It was Fischer, however, who by his lessons, his example, and his advice, exercised the greatest influence on Krusi's work. In April, 1800, as the opportunity for founding a normal school did not arrive, Fischer, unable to wait any longer, accepted a post at Berne, where he was appointed professor of philosophy and pedagogy, with a seat on the Council of Education.
Krusi felt his loss very much, but endeavoured to make up for it by going to Berne every Sunday to receive advice, and render an account of the week's work. Before long, however, Fischer fell ill and died. It was Pestalozzi who brought Krusi the sad news, and he proposed that they should unite their schools, and pursue together their common work.
Krusi unhesitatingly accepted, for he had already learned to understand Pestalozzi, and to see the importance of his educational views, which were similar in many respects to the opinions at which, in the course of his self-instruction, he had himself arrived.
And thus Pestalozzi found the very collaborator he was in need of, a man, that is, who was warm-hearted, intelligent, energetic, and devoted to teaching, and at the same time entirely free from routine and old-fashioned prejudices. Krusi differed also from most other teachers in underrating his own attainments. He remained with Pestalozzi till the decay of the Yverdun institute, successfully teaching the various elementary subjects, and winning especial distinction for his lessons in language and natural history.
His old pupils will always remember him with affection: the fine, dignified head; the high, open forehead and curly hair; the kind, intelligent eyes; and, above all, the neverchanging expression of gentleness, simplicity, and goodwill. It was he especially that we liked to have for our guide in our mountain walks and excursions at Yverdun, when he would look after those of us who were small and weak not only like a father, but with all the care of the tenderest. mother.
Whilst at Yverdun, Krusi married an under-mistress in Niederer's school, a lady in every respect worthy of him. After the fall of Pestalozzi's establishment, he went back
to his native place, where he was entrusted first with the direction of the district school at Trogen, then with that of the normal school at Gais. It was at the latter place that in October, 1837, we had the pleasure of seeing our old master again, and spending some days with him.
He had acquired a large house situated a little above the village at the foot of the Gäbris. He and his family occupied the first floor; on the second, his eldest daughter, a pupil of Mrs. Niederer's, conducted a school for girls, and on the ground floor was the class-room of his training students, who lived, however, in the village. Next to the class-room was a model primary school, where Krusi taught the grandchildren of many who had been his pupils forty-four years before. He was now sixty-two years old; it was twenty years since we had left him, and he was scarcely altered. His energy seemed no whit abated. Lessons, games, walks, everything was the better for his goodness, ardour, and simple piety, which filled the house with harmony and joy, and encouraged earnestness in thought and work.
PESTALOZZI'S INSTITUTE AT BURGDORF.
Pestalozzi and Krusi unite their Schools in Burgdorf Castle. Tobler, Buss, and Naef join them. Appreciation of the new institution by the Society of the Friends of Education. Great success of the school. Its reputation in other countries. Visitors of note. The Government appoints a Commission to examine it. Official reports. The Petty Council decides to convert it into a training college for Switzerland. Counter-revolution in Switzerland. lozzi deputed to attend the Consulta in Paris. parte and the Pestalozzian method. The Bernese Government resumes possession of Burgdorf Castle. Pestalozzi's institute transferred first to Munchenbuchsee, then to Yverdun.
PESTALOZZI was now safe, for he had found in Krusi a man who not only thoroughly entered into his ideas, and eagerly acted on his suggestions, but who had besides the strength and knowledge of the world that he himself lacked.
To unite the poor refugees from Appenzell with the children that the well-to-do families of Burgdorf had entrusted to him, Pestalozzi had need of much more room than had hitherto sufficed him. Thanks to the efforts of Stapfer, the Executive Council, by a decree of the 23rd of July, 1800, granted to Pestalozzi the gratuitous use of as much of the castle of Burgdorf as was necessary for his purpose, as well as that of a certain portion of the garden. They also agreed to supply him with a considerable quantity of wood.
The two little schools were then brought together in the rooms of the castle, and the two new friends began their work in common.
Krusi's account of their first efforts is as follows:
"Pestalozzi left me quite free. I was filled with admiration for his views, his work, and his past life. I felt myself encouraged by his trust, and was proud of his friendship. The appearance of our combined schools became more and more satisfactory every day, and the happiness of the children and their eagerness to learn soon attracted a good deal of attention."
Pestalozzi himself was less satisfied; he found himself hampered by the many differences of age, education, character, habits, and origin in the children thus united under his care. He felt the need, too, of more help, not only for his own greater freedom of action, but for the sake of his elementary instruction books, at which he was already working, and of which we shall have to say something further on, though neither the plan nor the execution was, in our opinion, at all satisfactory.
As soon as the summer holidays arrived, Krusi took the opportunity of paying a visit to his friend and compatriot, Tobler, who was a tutor in a family at Basle, and who, from his correspondence with Fischer, had already learned to know something of Pestalozzi. Krusi gave him an account of the new undertaking at Burgdorf and suggested that he should take part in it.
Tobler at once accepted. He had talent and imagination, and a great taste for study and teaching. His early educa tion had been much neglected, but at twenty-two years of age, having suddenly decided to become a minister of the Gospel, he had begun to work seriously. Obliged, however, to earn his own living, he was fortunate enough to obtain a tutorship in Basle which left him leisure for private work. He had been working in this way for ten years with unflagging perseverance, when he became acquainted with Pestalozzi. He had never succeeded to his own satisfaction in imparting his knowledge to his pupils, and now he seemed to see in this man the very power that he himself lacked. He gladly embraced the opportunity of working with him, and hastened to Burgdorf.
Pestalozzi was still in need of a master to teach drawing and singing. Tobler recommended him a young man named Buss, who was at that time apprenticed to a bookbinder in Basle.
Buss had had a strange existence. His father was employed in the theological school at Tubingen, and had made him follow the Latin lessons from the time he was three till he was thirteen. When he was eight years old, a student taught him the piano. The student left however in six months' time, and the boy had to continue his music alone. He succeeded so well that, by the time he was twelve, he was sufficiently advanced to be able to take pupils. At eleven he had taken drawing-lessons, and was already studying Greek, Hebrew, logic, and rhetoric. His father hoped. that he would be able to finish his studies without payment in the academy of science and art of Stuttgart, but this was declared to be impossible, "because he was of too low extraction." Greatly disheartened, and obliged to put his hand to something for a living, he became a bookbinder. In spite of this, however, he continued to cultivate his talent for music and drawing.
He was working in this way at Basle, with little taste for the trade he had chosen, when Tobler brought him Pestalozzi's offer. His friends advised him not to accept it, for they only knew the great teacher by his weak side. "He's all but a mad man," they said, "with whom it is better to have nothing to do; he never quite knows what he wants, and has even been seen in the streets of Basle with his shoes tied on with straw." This was a fact, for one day Pestalozzi, being anxious to help a poor man outside the town gates, and having no money, had given him his shoe-buckles. But Buss had read Leonard and Gertrude, and that was enough.
When Buss arrived at Burgdorf, Pestalozzi, who hurried to meet him, his hair and clothes in the greatest disorder, his stockings down, and his shoes covered with dust, pro uced for a moment anything but a favourable impression. Soon, however, the quickness of his intellect, together with his extreme kindliness and simpleness, had entirely won the sympathy and trust of the new comer.
On entering the schoolroom, Buss found nothing at first but noise and confusion, and it was some little time before he could understand what was going on. His first impres
sion was that the children were kept too long at the elements; but when he saw how much power this gave them afterwards, he could not help feeling that if he himself had been taught in this way, he would have been in a position