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judge was out, and the old man had to wait a long time in the ante-chamber with his custodian. Great was the latter's astonishment when the judge, on his return, recognized Pestalozzi, and, after greeting him warmly, invited him to


Fellenberg was a skilful agriculturist and an excellent administrator. Though a man of noble and lofty views, he was eminently practical, and his activity was always wisely directed. He possessed, indeed, in a marked degree the very qualities which Pestalozzi lacked. He had voluntarily renounced the brilliant career that his birth and talents would assuredly have thrown open to him, in order to devote his fortune and ability to undertakings of public utility.

His establishments at Hofwyl had the double object of forming active, intelligent, and honest workmen amongst the poor, and skilled agriculturists amongst the rich. It was obvious, therefore, that the two friends could be of much assistance to each other in their respective undertakings, and Fellenberg suggested to the old man that they should work together, Fellenberg taking entire control of the financial department, and Pestalozzi, freed from responsibilities for which he had neither taste nor capacity, controlling the combined establishments in all educational matters.

At first Pestalozzi accepted; but he and Fellenberg were made rather to respect each other than to live together. There was as much difference in their characters and ways of thinking and feeling as in their habits and outward appearance. Fellenberg, though at bottom kind and generous, had a stern, masterful manner. Pestalozzi, who used to call him "the man of iron," found the partnership anything but helpful, and could not make up his mind to remain at Munchenbuchsee.

Several towns were anxious to receive him, amongst others Payerne, Yverdun, and Rolle in the canton of Vaud. Thinking that to be established in a French-speaking country would encourage the spread of his method, he chose Yverdun.

"He left Munchenbuchsee, then, on the 18th of October, 1804, after having taken a touching farewell of his masters

and pupils. He arrived at Yverdun without knowing what would become of him, and so entirely destitute of resources, that he had to share a single room with Krusi and Niederer. He was living thus when he received a present of four pounds from the King of Denmark, as a token of gratitude for the hospitality that he had shown to two Danes (Torlitz and Strohm) who had been sent by their Government to Burgdorf to study his method.

"But however pressing his personal needs may have been, his first thought was for his friendless children, whom Fellenberg had been very reluctant to keep. He now sent for them, and placed them with Buss and Barraud, who at that time were laying the foundations of a Pestalozzian institute at Yverdun." (Pompée, p. 141.)

The castle of Yverdun needed thorough repair before an institute could be opened in it. The work, however, proceeded so slowly, that Pestalozzi decided, in the meantime, to open a temporary school in a small set of rooms looking on the Rue du Four, in a house which to-day is No. 51, Rue du Milieu.

Pestalozzi had left behind him at Munchenbuchsee about seventy pupils, with Tobler, de Muralt, Schmidt, von Türck,1 Steiner, and a few under-masters. Tobler, who was perfectly capable in every respect, had been entrusted with the management of all educational matters, but Fellenberg, though he was only supposed to control the finance, soon began to exercise an undue influence in everything.

To show the effect of this influence on the institute we cannot do better than quote the following passage from Ramsauer:

"At Munchenbuchsee I was unhappy for the first time in my life. I was still table-boy and under-master, but I had nobody to comfort my heart. We missed particularly the love and warmth which pervaded everything at Burgdorf,

1 Von Türck, an Oldenburg magistrate, had been sent by the Grand Duke to Burgdorf. He published a book called Letters from Munchenbuchsee, which was one of the first works to give a clear account of Pestalozzi's method, and one of those that most helped to make it known in Germany. He afterwards opened a boarding-school in Yverdun, the pupils of which attended the day-classes in Pestalozzi's institute.

and made us all so happy. With Pestalozzi the heart was first, with Fellenberg, the mind.

66 And yet Munchenbuchsee had its good points too; there was more order there, and we learned more than at Burgdorf.

"In February, 1805, to my great joy, Pestalozzi sent for me to go back to him to Yverdun, where I once more found a father's love, and my dear masters, Krusi and Buss. A few months later the whole institute had rejoined Pestalozzi in Yverdun Castle."



"How Gertrude Teaches Her Children." "How to Teach Spelling and Reading." "Book for Mothers." Elementary Teaching on Number and Form. "The Natural School


PESTALOZZI had no sooner opened his institute at Burgdorf than he was anxious to give the public some more complete account than they had yet had of his life work and of the views which he was endeavouring to put into practice. He accordingly published the book entitled: How Gertrude Teaches Her Children; an Attempt to Show Mothers how they can Teach their Children Themselves.

Morf, whose estimate of Pestalozzi's work at Stanz we have already quoted, speaks of this book as follows:

"This book is the most important and the most carefully thought out of all Pestalozzi's pedagogical writings. Not only was its importance great at the time at which it appeared, but it will remain great for ever. The true char

acteristics of his genius stand out free as yet from all foreign influence. His own thoughts, expressed in his own words, give us the most faithful picture of this noble heart. We are filled with admiration at the fulness of his intuitions— I might almost say of the revelations of which Providence had made him the instrument. From the beginning to the end of this work our attention and interest never flag. Here and there we may object to certain of his methods, but never to his principles and conclusions. And even though experience has enabled us to improve on certain points, we are bound to admit with gratitude that this improvement has only been reached by following the lines originally laid down by Pestalozzi. This book is to-day and will ever remain the foundation stone of all

instruction for the people, but its hidden treasures are still far from having been all put into practice, and we cannot too earnestly urge all those who are engaged or interested in education to make a serious study of it."

We must, however, add that this book is by no means free from the defects of most of Pestalozzi's writings. The author is too easily carried away by his heart and imagination; the wealth and abundance of his ideas interfere with the order of the general plan and the proportion of the various parts. The digressions and repetitions are innumerable, though it is fair to say that when the same ideas reappear, it is always in a new light.

A simple analysis of the work would give but a very imperfect idea of it; we prefer to run rapidly through it with our readers, calling attention to the most essential principles, and translating the most characteristic passages.

The book consists of fifteen letters addressed to Gessner. The first, which briefly reviews the author's life and work, and his efforts towards raising the people, begins thus:

"My dear Gessner, you say that it is time I made some public statement of my ideas about the education of the people. I shall be only too glad to do so, and will endeavour in a series of letters to set forth my views as clearly as possible.

"Seeing popular education lying before me like an immeasurable swamp, I plunged into its slime, and, by exerting all my strength, waded toilsomely through, till I at last discovered the sources of its waters, the reason of their stagnation, and the means of reclaiming the ground.

"I will now take you with me for a moment into this labyrinth, from which, by good fortune rather than by good judgment, I have at last found a way out."

After giving a description of the intellectual poverty in which the schools of his time left the people, and the history of his various unsuccessful attempts to remedy it, Pestalozzi proceeds to sum up the aim of his work as follows:

"Ah, how happy I shall be in my grave if in what I am doing for popular education I can succeed in uniting Nature

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