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need know up to the age of six years. Then follows the dedication:

"To the People of Helvetia!

"I have seen thy degradation, thy terrible degradation, and I have had pity on thee, and long to help thee. I have neither talent nor knowledge, and I am of no account in the world, but I know thy needs. I give thee, then, myself and all that I have been able to accomplish for thee by the painful labours of my life.

"Read what I say without prejudice, and if any one should offer anything better, throw me aside, and let me sink back into the obscurity in which I have passed my life. But if no one can tell thee what I tell thee, if no one can help thee as I can, then give a tear to my memory and to the life I have lost for thy sake."

Amongst the preliminary notes we find some striking ideas as to the moral importance of good language-teaching which put us in mind of the work of Father Girard twenty years later; there are also plans for the study of language, and criticisms of the methods then in use. After speaking of the mischief done by the bad methods of so many schoolmasters, the author exclaims, "Jesus Christ, the only Master!" That, then, is where Pestalozzi looked for his model.

As we have said, the body of the work is a collection of instructions founded on the meanings of words. The words are arranged alphabetically, each word being accompanied by its derivatives, and each being taken successively in its different acceptations. To be thoroughly understood, the book must, of course, be read in German, but we will endeavour to give our readers some idea of it by translating the first paragraph:

"I. Achten, achtend, geachtet, erachten, beobachten, hochachten, verachten, sich selbstachten; die Achtung, die Selbstachtung.

"Children, the first word I am going to explain to you is Selbstachtung (attention to self, respect for self).

"It is this that makes you blush when you have done wrong; that makes you love virtue, pray to God, believe in

eternal life, and overcome sin. It is this that makes you honour age and wisdom, and prevents your turning aside from poverty and distress; it is this that enables you to repel error and falsehood, and teaches you to love truth. Children, it is this that makes the coward a hero, the idler a man of action; that makes us honour the stranger, and come to the rescue of the outcast and the fallen."

The manuscript in the hands of Mr. Morf is not all that Pestalozzi entrusted to Krusi; there were also a number of separate sheets, made use of by Krusi for his publication, which have since been lost. But everything contained in The Natural Schoolmaster and the Paternal Instructions has been published by Seyffarth in the sixteenth volume of his collection of Pestalozzi's works, a volume which any one who was thinking of preparing a manual of languageexercises for young children would do well to read.



Helpers. Vulliemin's reminiscences. Prussia adopts the Pestalozzian Method. Great reputation of the Institute. Testimony of Ritter, Raumer, etc. School for girls. School for deaf-mutes. Life in the institute. A printing-press in the Castle. "Weekly Journal of Education." Other publications. Games, manual labour, festivities.

ONCE installed in the old Castle of Yverdun,1 the institute grew rapidly; the pupils were soon much more numerous than they had been at Burgdorf, and the number of masters was considerably increased. Many of the latter had been pupils at Burgdorf, and now, as under-masters entrusted with the teaching of the most elementary subjects, they faithfully applied the method by which they had themselves been formed. The others were men of various attainments and capacity, who had eagerly accepted work under Pestalozzi.

Amongst the new helpers we must mention:

John Niederer, of Outer Appenzell, Doctor of Philosophy, who when the Burgdorf institute was opened was the pastor of Sennwald, in the Rheinthal. In the letters which he wrote at the time to his intimate friend Tobler, and which have since been published by his widow, he expresses sincere admiration for Pestalozzi, and a great desire to join him. This desire, however, was not satisfied till some years later, for he would not leave his parish till he was satisfied that it would not suffer from his absence. Niederer has been called the philosopher of the "method,"

1 Once the residence of the Bailiffs of Canton Berne, it had become the property of the Vaudese Government, and had been sold in 1804 to the town of Yverdun, on condition that Pestalozzi, during his life, should have the gratuitous use of it for his educational institution.

because he put Pestalozzi's ideas into a more philosophical form. At Ÿverdun he revised everything that the master wrote for publication, correcting the chief defects, and, it must be added, somewhat spoiling the originality of both matter and form. Indeed, if Pestalozzi's thought is to be thoroughly understood, it must be examined in those of his writings which were not touched by anybody but himself.


De Murault, of Zurich, a well-informed man, of large views and good administrative ability; simple and kindly with children. He had lived in Paris, and spoke French fairly well; and as all the singing in the institute was in German, he won the hearts of all the French-speaking boys by taking us for walks, and teaching us songs in our mothertongue. He afterwards became the head of an important educational establishment in St. Petersburg.

Mieg, a capable man; kind, but very firm. After Murault's departure, Pestalozzi entrusted him for some time with the general management of the discipline of the institute.

Von Türck, of a noble family in the north of Germany. He gave up a good position in the Oldenburg magistracy to come and study Pestalozzi's work, of which he afterwards published an account, with the title: Letters from Munchenbuchsee on Pestalozzi and his Elementary Method of Educa tion. This man, distinguished alike for his talents, his high aims, and his extraordinary strength of will, after having conducted a school in Yverdun in connection with Pestalozzi's institute, was appointed a Councillor of State in Potsdam, where he zealously worked for thirty years at the application and propagation of the master's doctrine.

Barraud, soon called away by Maine de Biran to Bergerac, in Dordogne, where he founded an educational institute based on Pestalozzi's principles.

Amongst the poor children who had been received at Burgdorf, and who afterwards became masters at Yverdun, the three most distinguished were:

Ramsauer, of whom mention has already been made, and whom we shall have occasion to quote again.

He had been teaching in a family in Paris at the time of the Consulta, and having become acquainted with Pestalozzi, had expressed a desire to work with him.

2 The author was an old Yverdun pupil.


Joseph Schmidt, a shepherd-boy from the Tyrol, who had had no early education whatever. Burgdorf had a greater influence on his intellect than on his heart. He soon showed a remarkable talent for mathematics, which he taught at Yverdun with great skill and astonishing success. With a glance like an eagle and a will of iron, he was crafty, domineering, and utterly devoid of sensibility. He gradually obtained complete ascendancy over Pestalozzi's mind, and was finally the cause of the departure of the other masters, and of the ruin of the institute. It was he who drew up the Elementary Lessons in Number and Form, which are printed in volumes xiv. and xv. of the very incomplete edition of Pestalozzi's works published by Cotta from 1820 to 1826.

Steiner, a neglected child, who received all his education from Pestalozzi at Burgdorf. He was an under-master at Yverdun, and was one of the pupils who did the greatest credit to the "method." Much later he became a professor of mathematics in Berlin, and published works which have had a very considerable effect in popularizing and improving the study of that science.

Such were now Pestalozzi's chief helpers. There were many others afterwards, but it must be remembered that we are speaking of a time when the Yverdun institute was still in its infancy.

To give our readers a clear idea of the life of the institute in these early days, we cannot do better than quote the interesting writer who has lately published, for his family and friends, as he says, the memories of his childhood. We refer to Professor Vulliemin, the eminent historian and continuator of Jean de Muller. He entered Pestalozzi's institute in 1805, at the age of eight, and remained there two years. His account of the place is as follows:

"Imagine, my children, a very ugly man, with rough, bristling hair, his face scarred with small-pox and covered with freckles, a pointed, untidy beard, no neck-tie, ill-fitting trousers, stockings down, and enormous shoes; add to this a breathless, shuffling gait, eyes either large and flashing, or half-closed as though turned within, features expressing either a profound sadness or the most peaceful happiness, speech now slow and musical, now thundering and hurried,

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