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endeavoured to reassure Pestalozzi when the old man was dissatisfied with his work, was Niederer; and the illusions which run through the Report to Parents are undoubtedly his. Pestalozzi himself recognized them as illusions afterwards, as we see in the notes he added to the second edition in 1823, two of which run thus:

On page 4: "What is said here is, speaking generally, merely the effect of the great illusions we entertained at that time, and which, kept up by favourable external circumstances, made us see things as we should have liked them to be, and as, considering our principles, our wishes, and our efforts, we thought they ought to be."

On page 24: "In this passage, as in many others, I am not so much giving expression to my own simple and primitive views on education as to certain philosophical ideas which were not my own, which had not ripened in my mind, and which I did not perfectly understand. In spite of all our good intentions, these ideas had disturbed not only myself but several of my colleagues; I may even go so far as to say that it was they that led me astray and were the secret cause of the misfortunes that finally overtook my establishment."

The three short works we have just described were published by Pestalozzi in the eleventh volume of Cotta's edition, under the general title of, Views and Experiences in Connection with the Idea of Elementary Education, togethed with Notices and Fragments concerning the Course and History of the Enterprises of my Life. The whole was preceded by a preface from which we quote the following passage, referring to the Principles and Plan of a Journal, published in 1807.

"This writing must not be looked upon as giving my own personal view, but rather as expressing the views of the friends I then had about me. The presumption and incomprehensible blindness that made us so miscalculate our strength and means at that time, should be the more interesting to the public that these fantastic dreams were the first and chief cause of all the misfortune, humiliation, and sorrow that have since fallen upon me and mine, and brought my work within an ace of destruction."

The discourse delivered by Pestalozzi at the meeting of the Society of Friends of Education at Lenzburg in 1809,

was printed shortly afterwards in the Weekly Journal, but not before it had been revised and expanded by Niederer. In 1821 it appeared, with a preface, in Cotta's eighth volume, where, although it had been considerably reduced for the purpose by Pestalozzi, it runs to a hundred and eighty-seven pages. The preface begins thus:

"This discourse, which differs materially from the one I really pronounced in Lenzburg, and bears the plainest marks of the foreign influence I was then under, shows clearly enough the spirit that prevailed amongst us at that time. We were carried away by a premature desire to explain our whole doctrine and system by basing it upon a philosophical principle which should embrace it in all its parts and all its developments, and we entirely lost sight of the fact that our practical work was still most defective and incomplete."

In the face of this statement, we cannot consider the Lenzburg discourse, as we possess it to-day, to be the pure expression of Pestalozzi's thought; it is much rather the expression of Niederer's conception of it. This, however, does not make it any the less interesting or less worth considering.

After referring to the many erroneous opinions that have been formed of the method and the institute, and to the official examination that he has just felt compelled to ask of the Swiss Diet, Pestalozzi invites all friends of education to come and judge for themselves. But as it is impossible to thoroughly understand what is being done at Yverdun without being acquainted with the fundamental principle of the method and its various applications, he is anxious that everybody should have as clear and complete a general notion of his system as possible. He therefore proceeds to draw up a statement of his method, characterizing it as elementary, organic, and genetic, and developing each of these three points of view at considerable length.

A complete analysis of this work would take us too far, besides obliging us to repeat much that we have said elsewhere.

The eighteenth and last volume of Seyffarth's collection contains some extracts from the Weekly Journal; Niederer's work entitled: Pestalozzi's Enterprise in its Relation with

the Education of our Time; and the main points of the long, sad quarrel that followed the official inspection of the institute in 1809. Sundry smaller works of Pestalozzi's, the manuscripts of which he had entrusted to Niederer, are also here published for the first time. These are:

1. Pestalozzi Sketched by Himself.

This is the letter Pestalozzi addressed to Ith, when the latter was appointed to inspect the institute of Burgdorf. 2. Epochs.

This is a historical sketch from a social and political point of view, and is connected with An Inquiry into the Course of Nature in the Development of the Human Race.

3. Religious Education: a Glance at Christ and His Doctrine.

Pestalozzi here establishes the agreement between his views and the Saviour's teaching.

4. The Method.

This is the report presented by Pestalozzi to the Society of the Friends of Education in 1800, and referred to by us in its proper place.

5. Pestalozzi's New Year's Day Discourse for 1816.

In this discourse the old man's heart is seen to be divided between grief for the loss of the wife who had always been his good angel, and joy at seeing his work in safety. The latter sentiment, however, was but the result of an illusion; for there is no doubt that he exaggerated the value and bearing of the reforms carried out by Schmidt since his return. In this same discourse the thought that death is drawing near stimulates his religious feelings, and he exclaims:

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Brothers and friends! I hear God's voice saying: Your grave is being prepared; you are about to go down into it; your friends will place you there as they have lately placed the companion of your life; you are soon to enter into eternal rest in the sight of your whole house, in the sight of the men and children who are yours, and whom you will leave behind. I see myself lying in my grave; I see myself entering into eternity, contemplating God, and praying to Him in truth and holiness. But I awake. I have seen my destiny. It is not in the transitory work of this earthly life; it is purity and innocence; it is the power of devotion of a faithful life to the service of God and humanity; it is the

imitation of Jesus Christ, through faith in Him crucified, and for the glory of God the Father."

6. Pestalozzi's New Year's Day Discourse for 1817.

Here the old man examines his past. He has undertaken work out of all proportion to his strength, and would have failed but for God's assistance. As it is, his work remains defective and incomplete because some have not done what they could to bring God's blessing upon it. Pestalozzi himself is one of these, and this is the reason that his seventyone years have not been sufficient. There is now no longer a moment to lose; the new year must not be like so many past years; it must not find the former man, but a new man, stripped of his errors, his weaknesses, and his negligences, and regenerated by the love of God and faith in Jesus Christ. He concludes thus:

"What must I do to become such a new man?

How am I to complete, establish, and sanctify the work of my short life on earth?

"Seeking to understand the real aim of my life, the real motive of that work which took such entire possession of me that I found no rest in anything else, I seem to hear an internal voice saying that it was the need to free man from the sensual domination of his animal nature, and raise him above the view of this world to a clear and divine view of the spiritual essence of his being. But what am I, that I should dare to lay my hand to this sublime task? Am I not like a child who, admiring the heavens, should deem it possible to place the sun upon his head, take the moon into his hands, and make a crown for his forehead of the stars?

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"That which I long for and seek after, that which is holy, unchanging, and eternal in the aim of my life, is in no way mine; it is humanity's and God's. What am I, what are we all, in such work as this? A nothing that passes with the moment, like the insect of a day.

"But though the outward structure of our work should crumble, it is not humanity's, not God's work that disappears. It is merely the hammer, a stone, a grain of sand falling from God's building, where we have foolishly and ignorantly striven to fix it."



1765. Agis.

1776. An appeal to the friends and benefactors of humanity to support an institution intended to provide education and work for poor country children.

1777. Three letters on the education of poor children.-A few words on the most degraded portion of humanity. An appeal to the charitable to come to its assistance.

1778. An account of the educational establishment for poor children at Neuhof.

1780. The Evening Hour of a Hermit.

1781. Leonard and Gertrude (vol. i.).-Note on the sumptuary laws. 1782. Christopher and Eliza. -The Swiss News, a weekly newspaper (2 vols.)

*The Education of Children in the Home. Incomplete, never published by Pestalozzi, and only to be found in Niederer's Notes on Pestalozzi, published at Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1828 and 1829.

1783. Leonard and Gertrude (vol. ii.). On Legislation and Infanticide. 1785. Leonard and Gertrude (vol. iii.).

1787. Leonard and Gertrude (vol. iv.).

1792. On the Causes of the French Revolution. Never published by


1797. Fables (2 vols.).-An Inquiry into the Course of Nature in the Development of the Human Race.

1798. Political Pamphlets on the Swiss Revolution: A Word to the Legislative Councils of Helvetia; On Tithes; Awake, People of Helvetia; To my Country; To the People of Helvetia; Appeal to the Inhabitants of the old Democratic Cantons; On the Present and Future of Humanity.

1799. Letter to Gessner on the work at Stanz.

1800. Memoir presented to the Society of Friends of Education. Never published by Pestalozzi, and only to be found in Niederer's Notes on Pestalozzi, and in the eighteenth and last volume of Seyffarth's edition.

1801. How to Teach Spelling and Reading.-How Gertrude Teaches her Children.-Epochs; a historical sketch, from a social and political point of view. In Seyffarth's last volume.-Religious Education; a Glance at Christ and His Doctrine. In Seyffarth's last volume.

1 Those marked with an asterisk are not included in Seyffarth's edition.

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