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walls of the chapel were taken down to make room for the Commons at the time of the Union. Many of the paintings were in oil, and, of course, representing scriptural subjects. There exists a royal order, dated 1350, for impressment of painters and others for these very works. The walls, as was seen, had been orignally adorned with sculpture, richly decorated in colour and gilding, and the windows had been filled with stained glass, thus showing a high development of art. cloisters were added by Henry VIII.,

The

and vied in splendour with the neighbouring mausoleum of Henry VII. The poet Chaucer was appointed Clerk of the Works, and resided in the precincts and on the very site of Henry VII.'s Chapel.

Thrice had fire vanquished the old palace, the last being when Henry VIII. was driven to seek shelter in York Place (the Whitehall), and from that time the old palace ceased to be a royal residence, remaining for a long time in utter ruin and decay, the Great Hall with the courts of law and

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INTERIOR OF THE STAR CHAMBER, WESTMINSTER. (Before the Fire, 1834.)

some other offices excepted. The courts of law were, as you know, originally, in fact, the 'King's Court,' and the king presided in person, the bench being his seat, until the inconvenience of the judges following the Court became so great, they were permanently settled at the king's chief residence, the Palace of Westminster. That terrible institution, the Star Chamber, the terror and abhorrence of the people of England, and for whose destruction we owe the Commonwealth a deep debt of gratitude, whose decrees over-rode law and liberty, was at Westminster, and the building so

named, erected in Elizabeth's time on the site of an older one, was pulled down in the present century. Its name is thought by Sir Thomas Smith to have come either because it was full of windows, or because the first roof was decked with images of stars gilded-Blackstone says from its being a place of deposit for contracts of the Jews, called starra, or stars, from the Hebrew shetar.

How many changes of scenes and actors have occurred in that old hall besides those already named! Here Sir William Wallace was tried and condemned; Sir Thomas More

and Protector Somerset were doomed to the scaffold; the murderers of Sir Thomas Overbury, the notorious Earl and Countess of Somerset, were tried here, and here also the great Earl of Strafford was condemned, when none was more a looker-on than he,' the king being present and the Commons sitting bareheaded, and here Charles I. sat covered, the colours taken at Naseby above his head, arraigned for treason to his people, before the counsellors of the Commonwealth, and Lilly, the astrologer, saw the golden top fall from the king's staff-an omen of what followed. Here, on June 26th, 1653 (to the Naseby banners were added those taken at Worcester, Preston, and Dunbar), Oliver Cromwell came-the Lord Mayor bearing the City sword before him -and was inaugurated Protector under a prince-like canopy of state, with the Bible, sword, and sceptre of the Commonwealth before him. Seven years later, at that hall-gate, Charles II. was proclaimed, and upon the south gable were set up the heads of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw - Cromwell's remained there twenty years. Here James II.'s seven bishops were acquitted, and in 1745 Kilmarnock, Balmerino, and Lovat were condemned.

Here Warren Hastings was impeached, and the last public trial in the hall itself was Lord Melville's, in 1806.

Booksellers, who were first migratory, like hawkers, and then became known as stationarii, from having booths or stalls at the corners of streets, in market and other public places exposed their wares, as did sempstresses and milliners, in Westminster Hall, and the revenues were received by the Warden of the Fleet Prison; but the poor scholars of Westminster were allowed to sell books here without charge. many years ago, fellows frequented the courts to be hired as witnesses, and carried straws in their shoes to show their infamous profession.

Not

Old Palace Yard has been the scene of many popular executions. The front of the scaffold was usually towards the hall. Among others, Guy Fawkes, Winter, Rookwood,

and Keyes, for the Gunpowder Plot; Lord Sanquar, for procuring the assassination of Turner, a fencing master, in Fleet Street, and whose hanging Lord Bacon declared to be the most exemplary piece of justice in any king's reign. Here, in 1618, the gallant, noble, brave Sir Walter Raleigh was executed, on a sentence found fourteen years before. 'What dost thou fear? Strike, man!' were his last words to the executioner. Here Prynne, Bastwick, and Burton stood, one June day (30th, 1637), in the pillory, when Bastwick's wife received his ears in her apron and kissed them. And here the Duke of Hamilton, Lord Holland, and Lord Capel lost their heads.

În New Palace Yard, the open space before the north entrance of the hall, were two interesting structures the conduit which flowed with wine for all comers, on occasions of great festivities-something like a drinking-fountain! and the lofty clock-tower, erected out of a fine inflicted on one of the Chief Justices of the King's Bench, for making a rasure of a court-roll, and reducing a poor man's fine from 138. 4d. to 6s. 8d. The clock struck hourly, and was intended to remind the judges of the fate of their brother, and teach lawyers the difference of value between 138. 4d. and 68. 8d.

In the Chapter-house of the Abbey, on the right, the Commons of England first sat as a separate body from the Lords; and, upon one occasion, when they became riotous, and created a turmoil (a Congress, in fact), the abbot waxed wroth, and turned out the legislative wisdom bodily, and vowed the place should not be again defiled with such rabble.

The last coronation procession that passed through Palace Yard to banquet in the Great Hall, was George IV.'s. We knew a little boy, for there were little boys when we were young, though now-a-days, we believe, there are only children and 'young fellahs,' who was sent to bed at seven o'clock on the eve of that ceremony, 1821, and who scarcely slept a wink until he was waited upon at twelve o'clock, and

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OLD CLOCK HOUSE, WESTMINSTER. (From a Print by Hollar.)

verted into a humming-top, and only returned again to its natural state in the dim room, so that our little friend came to the conclusion, that when the ceremony of the day took place, he should not be able to see it. The fates were more propitious; and he saw twenty Lifeguardsmen, with laurel in the scales of their breastplates, and with swords drawn, ride around an open carriage, in which sat Queen Caroline and Alderman Wood! A surging mob was in the distance, shout

ing and groaning alternately, and the little boy thought that a civil war had broken out, and was coming into Palace Yard. He saw the queen go away as she had come, having been refused admission to the old hall, and felt very much relieved by the proceedings. After a while, red lines of soldiers took their stand beside the platform, and real officers on horseback rode about doing an immensity of nothing. Trumpets and drums! Trumpets and drums! began braying and

bumping on all sides, and beefeaters and heralds, and other splendid beings connected with the court, marched past, preceding the 'first gentleman in Europe,' with a crown of diamonds on his head, and a golden canopy over that, and a velvet train, a gold-embroidered behind, supported by noble young pages with feathers in their caps. That was King George IV. on the way to take dinner in the hall, after he had been crowned in the abbey. Then came Lord Castlereagh, with such a plume of feathers in his hat, that forty years have not removed them from the mental eyes of the little boy, they were so tremendous! Then there was the Champion of England, Mr. Dymock, in real armour, and mounted on a beautiful white charger, and he rode into the hall to challenge all the king's enemies, so the little boy was told, and he wished at that moment that he could have been his second. And then the little boy and his tempter went back into the dim room, and drank the king's health with three times three, and that is all the little boy remembers of the last coronation procession that passed into old Westminster Hall, little thinking that he should live to tell the little story here to-day.

*

We will pass at once through the beautiful gate of small square stone and flint boulder, glazed and tessellated-with its terra-cotta busts, naturally coloured, and gilt-designed by Holbein, and used until 1750 as a State-paper office, until it was pulled down to widen the street, and so enter St. James's Park. It may not be amiss to pause a minute at the Admiralty, considered to be, without flattery, the ugliest building in Her Majesty's service-and that is saying a great deal the site of Wallingford House, from whose roof Bishop Usher saw King Charles led to the scaffold, and swooned at the sight. Most of our kings, save the Conqueror, had vessels of war; and as early as 1297 the records speak of a William de Laybourn as Amiral

The present screen was erected by the Brothers Adams to conceal the ugliness of the building. Lord Nelson lay in state in one of the apartments, Jan. 8, 1806.

de la Mer, or First Lord of the Admiralty. It is usual to suppose that Henry VII. provided our first State Navy, but he did little more than build the Great Harry. It was his son, Harry VIII., who perfected the designs of his father. He instituted Admiralty and Navy Offices, the Trinity House, and made the sea service a distinct profession, leaving at his death a navy of 12,000 tons, including the Henri Grace de Dieu, of 1000 and more. These ships were high, unwieldy, and narrow, with lofty poops and prows; and one, the Mary Rose, 'a goodly ship of the largest size,' Raleigh says, her ports being within sixteen inches of the water, capsized at Spithead in swinging in presence of the king. Most of the officers and crew were drowned. In Elizabeth's reign such lubberly craft as the Mary Rose received but little improvement; but the pay of the seamen was increased from 5s. to 10s. per month; and the London merchants encouraged to build ships convertible into men-of-war on emergency. Of the 176 ships and 15,000 men which met the Spanish Armada, a considerable number were not 'shippes royal.' The first great impulse given towards making us a nation of mariners was when Frobisher departed for the Northern Seas, and Queen Bess, the prototype of Black-eyed Susan, bade Adieu! Adieu!' and waved her lily hand to him and his gallant crew-their example to be followed by other enterprising men, and hardy as the oak which bore them. James I. made a considerable advance in the construction of vessels, and employed Phineas Pett, the scientific shipbuilder, who relieved the vessels of much of their top hamper. Frobisher was the first Englishman who tried to find a north-west passage to China (1576). Frobisher's Straits are named after him. He returned to England, bringing with him a quantity of black ore supposed to contain gold, and this circumstance induced money-loving Elizabeth to fit out a second expedition, which proved unsuccessful. Frobisher was killed at the taking of Brest, 1594.

But avast!-I believe that is the

proper word-or we shall drift out to sea, instead of taking a peep at the Horse Guards, on the site of the old Tilt Yard, and then away to St. James's Park, originally a swampy field belonging to St. James's Hospital, and which Henry VIII. attached to the buildings of Whitehall, when he took up his abode at the Hospital, and converted it into a royal palace, of which only the old gate remains. During the reigns of Elizabeth and the two first Stuarts little was done for the Park. It was merely a nursery for deer; and at one time a small royal menagerie (Evelyn), containing, amongst other animals, two Balearian cranes, one with a wooden leg, made by a soldier, occupied the inward Park. From St. James's Palace to Whitehall walked Charles I. (Jan. 30, 1648-9) on the way to death, and is said to have pointed to a tree planted by his brother Henry, near Spring Gardens. The Council of the Commonwealth once proposed to cut down the living gallery of aged trees in St. James's Park, and sell them, so that no footsteps of monarchy might remain unviolated. They were spared, however; and beneath them Cromwell asked Whitelock, 'What if a man should take upon him to be king?' and was told, in reply, That the remedy would be worse than the disease.' The answer, no doubt, closed the conversation.

Charles II. added thirty-six acres to the Park, and had it greatly improved and ornamented by Le Nôtre. Evelyn and Pepys have left many records of the alterations then effected, and tell how there, for a wager, before the king, Lords Castlehaven and Arran run down and killed a stout buck: how, for 1000l., the Western and Northern men wrestled before his Majesty, and large sums were betted, the Western men winning. 'In a smooth hollow walk, covered with powdered cockle shells, to make it bind, planted with trees on both sides, having at each end an iron hoop depending from an arm of a long pole, through which a ball was struck,' the game of Pall Mall was played by king and nobles. Here Cibber saw King Charles ca

ressing his dogs and feeding his ducks, to the delight of his loving people; and virtuous Evelyn was shocked to note familiar discourse between the king and Mistress Nelly, as they called an impudent comedian, she looking out of her garden on the top, and the king standing on the green walk beneath,' part of which remains by the wall of Marlborough House; and amongst the list of Nelly's debts was the account for making this green mound, and also her sedan chair (347.), and her silver bedstead, which cost over 1100l.

Here, in Birdcage Walk, was a pleasant aviary, the keeper, Edward Storey, living at Storey's Gate; and here, in the inward Park, was the Decoy, or Duck Island, with withy pots for the wild fowl to lay their eggs in. Here, in winter, Pepys, for the first time in his life, saw the people sliding with the skates, and which he thought a very pretty art -the King and Court looking on, no doubt as they did when Evelyn was a spectator also.

The Park was a sanctuary from arrest, and traitorous expressions used there were severely punished. One Francis Head was whipped from Charing Cross to the Haymarket, fined, and imprisoned, for wishing James III. a long and prosperous reign; and a soldier, for drinking the Duke of Ormond's health, and hoping soon to wear his right master's cloth, was whipped in the Park. The Duke of Wharton was seized by a guard for singing a Jacobite

song

The king shall have his own again ;' and Richard Harris, for throwing an orange at the king, was sent to Bedlam-a proper punishment for the man's first disobedience, and the fruit.' Aubrey tells a rather uncomfortable story of one Evans, who had a fungous nose. One day, he seized the king's hand, rubbed his nose with it, and was cured-having previously kissed his royal pocket handkerchief. The king was disturbed.' We should fancy so!

At the death of Charles, the Park was deserted by royalty, but continued to be frequented by the peo

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