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futurity, and that "I (or we) will," "you shall,” “he (or they) shall" imply volition on the part of the speaker.

"Will" and "shall" in the first person are properly used in the following quotations from "The Absentee," — one of Miss Edgeworth's novels:

"Gone! forever gone from me," said Lord Colambre, as the carriage drove away. "Never shall I see her more never will I see her more, till she is married." We will do our best to make you happy, and hore we shall succeed.

In "Never shall I see her more," "We hope we shall succeed," "shall" simply points to the future: in "Never will I see her more,' ," "We will do our best," "will" implies the exercise of volition on the part of the speaker.

I.

I shall be drowned.

We shall be smothered to

gether.

We shall have to go.

I leave for the West this evening, and, accordingly, shall be unable to be present.

Is the time coming when we shall desert Thackeray ?

I am expecting a few young people to dance Saturday, January ninth, at half-past eight o'clock, and shall be happy to see you on that evening.

If we go to the country on the issue of tariff reform alone, we shall succeed. If we press the issue of free coinage of silver, we shall, in my judgment, lose every Eastern State, and gain nothing in the West. We shall lose the Presidency, the Senate, the House, free-coinage, tariffreform, and everything.

II.

I will be drowned.

We will be smothered to

gether.

We will have to go.

I leave for the West this evening, and accordingly will be unable to be present.

Is the time coming when we will desert Thackeray ?

I am expecting a few young people to dance Saturday, January ninth, at half-past eight o'clock and will be happy to see you on that evening.

If we go to the country on the issue of tariff reform alone, we will succeed. If we press the issue of free coinage of silver, in my judgment we will lose every Eastern State and gain nothing in the West. We will lose the Presidency, the Senate, the House, free coinage, tariffreform, and everything.

Tested by the examples of good use given above, the sentences under I. are correct, those under II. incorrect.

"Will" and "shall" in the second person are properly used in the following sentence from Defoe's "Colonel Jack":

"Not pay it!" says he, "but you shall pay it! ay, ay, you will

'pay it!"

In this example, "shall" is used with "you" where "will" would be used with "I," and "will" is used with "you" where "shall" would be used with "I." Were "I" in place of the first "you," the clause should read, "I will pay it." In "I will pay it," it is "I" who deter mine my own action; in "You shall pay it," it is a will not your own which determines your action. Were "I" in place of the second "you," the clause should read, "I shall pay it." "Shall" in "I shall pay it" and "will" in "You will pay it" say nothing about the exercise of volition by anybody, but simply point to the future.

If to give another example-I say "You will be elected, whoever may be your opponent," I do not suggest the exercise of volition by anybody; but if I say "You shall be elected, whoever may be your opponent,” I imply that some person or persons are resolved to elect you.

The imperative quality of "shall" in the second person appears in the Ten Commandments.

The imperative quality of "shall" in the third person appears in the following passage from Shakspere's "Coriolanus":

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Hear you this Triton of the minnows? Mark you

His absolute "shall"?

Some writers hold that "shall" was the original form of the future, that on grounds of courtesy it was changed to "will" in the second and third persons, and that whenever courtesy permits it should be preferred to "will." This may not be the true history of the distinction between "will" and "shall;" but the doctrine of courtesy furnishes a rough-and-ready rule for choice between the two.

As in the second and third persons "will" is the proper word to express simple futurity, and as the common error is the use of will where "shall" is the proper word, there is little danger that anybody whose native tongue is English will, in these persons, mistake "will" and "shall" for each other.

If, in a sentence consisting of a principal and a dependent clause, the verb in the principal clause is in the first person, the future of the verb in the dependent clause is formed as usual: e. g., "I am afraid that I shall, that you will, that he will, die."

If the principal verb is in the second person, the form of the future in the dependent clause is as usual in the first or in the third person: e. g., "You are afraid that I shall, that he will, die." In the second person, "shall" may sometimes be used where "will" would be used in a simple declarative sentence: e. g., "You are afraid that you shall die.”

If the principal verb is in the third person, the form of the future in the dependent clause is as usual in the first or the second person: e. g., "He is afraid that I shall, that you will die." It is as usual also in the third person if the subject of the principal verb is different from that of the dependent verb: e. g., "It is certain that he will die," "She hopes that he will live." If, however, the subject of the dependent clause is the same as that of the principal clause, "shall" is the proper auxiliary in the third person: e. g., "He is afraid that he shall die."

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Tested by the examples of good use given above, the sentences under I. are correct, those under II. incorrect.

There is one use of "shall" which is frequently found in old writers, but which is comparatively infrequent in modern English:

Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever.

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"Shall follow me 999 - to borrow Sir Edmund Head's words 1 66 means are destined to follow me by the divine ordinance,' and 'will dwell' expresses the intention or voluntary devotion of the speaker."

Other examples are

A work that, so long as even the memory of the Christian faith shall last, will bear to men messages of pardon and of peace.

The English language is spreading more and more, and many of the great travellers and writers of the day tell us that the time is coming when it shall be the language of the globe.

In the last example, "will" might have been used. "Will" means that English is going to be, "shall" that it is destined to be, "the language of the globe." If the writer had meant simply to state a future fact, he would have said "will": meaning to play the prophet, he said "shall."

1 In his excellent little book on "Shall and Will." John Murray: London

The correct use of "will" and "shall" in interrogative sentences is shown in the following quotations: —

"Will you do it? Or shall I?”

"Shall I speak to your mother? Or will you?"

"Shall you remain long?"

"Shall I, aunt?"

In an interrogative sentence, the forms of the future in the first and the third person are the same as in a declarative sentence: e. g., "Shall I go to New York next week?" "Will he live a week longer?" In the second person, "shall ". e. g., "Shall you go to New York next week?"simply points to the future; "will"-e. g., "Will you go?"suggests the exercise of volition by "you." "Shall you go?" is answered by "I shall" or "I shall not; " "Will you go?" is answered by "I will" or "I will not.” "Shall you?" raises no question of courtesy. "Shall he?" on the contrary, is answered by "He shall," "He shall not;" and is therefore forbidden by courtesy.

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Tested by the examples of good use given above, the sentences under I. are correct, those under II. incorrect.

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Would or Should. To that the choice between "would" and "should" is governed by the same rules as those which govern the choice between "will" and "shall," and to say nothing more, might mislead.

"Would" is sometimes used to signify habitual action: e. g., "When our visitors would say, 'Well, upon my word, Mrs. Primrose, you have the finest children in the whole country,''Ay, neighbor,' she would answer, they are as Heaven made them.'"

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