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"Should" is sometimes used in the sense of 66

ought":

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e. g., "He should make better time than he does ;" and sometimes in a conditional sense as the equivalent of were to": e. g., "If it should rain, he would not come." In this conditional sense the present subjunctive was common in Early English.

One who bears in mind these other senses of "would " and "should" may safely accept the rule that the choice between "would" and "should" is usually determined by considerations similar to those that determine the choice between "will" and "shall."

"Would" and "should" are correctly used in the following quotations :

We should never recognize our noses, if Cruikshank drew them, though our friends would.

You would not wish me so to guard you that you should have no power of sending a letter but by permission?

She did all that I wanted. I knew she would. I knew that we should either go to the bottom together or that she would be the making of me.

Therefore, all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them.

All unanimously answered that they would fight it out to death, and should be happy to die in defence of their religion.

In the sentences quoted above, "would" and "should" are used as "will" and "shall" would have been, had they been the proper forms to express the writer's meaning.

I.

If I had expected to stay at home, I should not have needed a ticket.

I should be interested to know how much that experience cost.

On this hypothesis, we should expect to find trout in the Charles.

II.

If I had expected to stay at home, I would not have needed a ticket.

I would be interested to know how much that experience cost. On this hypothesis we would expect to find trout in the Charles.

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Tested by the examples of good use given above, the sentences under I. are correct, those under II. incorrect.

I.

As a friend, I should like to make a suggestion.

I should be willing to hazard a guess that Professor Blo cannot read my writing.

If we had to see it again, we should wish to choose a brighter day.

He had always thought he should like to be a minister.

II.

As a friend, I would like to make a suggestion.

I would be willing to hazard a guess that Professor Blo cannot read my writing.

If we had to see it again, we would wish to choose a brighter day.

He had always thought he would like to be a minister.

Volition is so fully expressed in the verbs "to like," "to be willing," "to wish," as not to need expression by the auxiliary verb. "I would like" means "It is my wish to like," "I should like to like."

The established distinctions between WILL and SHALL, WOULD and SHOULD should be carefully observed.

Correct and Incorrect Forms. Some incorrect forms of verbs stray into print.

I.

So many times had her heart beat quicker at the sound of the door-bell.

She scolded them, and at last bade them good-night.

He called his servants and bade them procure fire-arms.

Uncertain, even at that epoch, of Austria's fidelity, Prussia bid high for German leadership.

II.

So many times her heart had beaten quicker at the sound of the door-bell.

She scolded them and finally bid them good-night.

He called his servants and bid them procure fire-arms.

Uncertain, even at that epoch, of Austria's fidelity, Prussia bade high for German leadership.

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The correct preterite of "bid" with expressions like "good-night" or in the sense of "ordered" is "bade; that of “bid” in the sense of "bidding at an auction" is "bid." In Scotland, "bade" is still used as the preterite of "bid" in the latter sense, as it was by Dr. Johnson.

I.

Lemonade is not much drunk among the French in winter.

John drank all that he could.

II.

Lemonade is not much drank among the French in winter. John drunk all that he could.

"Drank" and "drunk" are sometimes used indiscriminately, even by good authors; but it seems better to confine "drank" to the preterite tense, e. g., "I drank," and "drunk" to the participle, e. g., "You have drunk." A similar remark may be made about "sang" and "sung," "sprang" and "sprung," "shrank" and "shrunk."

He gave

I.

each a large piece of

gingerbread, which the poor fel

lows ate very heartily.

II.

He gave each a large piece of gingerbread which the poor fellows eat very heartily.

It is an exaggeration to say, as an American newspaper recently did, that "ate" has almost disappeared from printed books; but it is certain that eat is often substituted for "ate." One cannot positively affirm that good use pro

nounces "ate" to be the only proper form of the preterite, but in that tense it is certainly preferable to eat.

I.

Before I had got half-way across the yard, men came swarming out of the building.

II.

Before I had gotten half way across the yard, men came swarming out of the building.

Gotten is an old form, but it is not sanctioned by the best modern use. In some parts of the United States it is, however, often heard and written.

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Lead is sometimes used for "led," either because the writer does not know how the word is spelled, or because he has "read," "read" in mind.

I.

The front room was lighted and

warmed by a wood-fire.

II.

The front room was lit and warmed by a wood-fire.

"Lighted" seems preferable to lit; but lit is used in this sense by some writers of reputation.

I.

It is proved that his account of

European society is accurate.

II.

It is proven that his account of European society is accurate.

In

Proven is borrowed from the Scotch legal dialect. the case of Madeline Smith, who was tried for murder in Edinburgh in 1857, the verdict of the jury was "not proven." Since that time the word has often appeared in newspapers, in magazines, and even in books, in place of "proved," which is the correct form of the participle.

I.

I had not ridden ten miles

when the sun rose.

II.

I had not rode ten miles when the sun rose.

"Had rode" instead of "had ridden," was once, but is not now, in good use.

I.

On Washington's birthday, I was waked at sunrise by the bells.

I have awaked at seven these ten years.

11.

On Washington's birthday, I was woke at sunrise by the bells.

I have awoke at seven this ten years.

Woke and awoke as forms of the past participle, though not without authority, are not sanctioned by the best use.

Questions of Tense. Among the most perplexing questions connected with verbs are those which concern the choice between this and that tense.

I.

How much is there now? Mr. Johns regrets that a previous engagement prevents him from accepting Mrs. Smith's invitation to dinner on Monday.

II.

How much will there be now?

Mr. Johns regrets that a previous engagement will prevent him from accepting Mrs. Smith's invitation to dinner on Monday.

It is difficult to see how a "previous engagement" which does not exist at the time when Mr. Johns writes his note, can furnish a reason for declining Mrs. Smith's invitation. If the "previous engagement" does exist at that time, it prevents him at that time from accepting the invitation.

I.

Mr. Robinson regrets that he is unable to accept the kind invitation of Mrs. Hollis, as he will be absent from the city on Friday.

II.

Mr. Robinson regrets that absence from the city will prevent him from accepting the kind invitation of Mrs. Hollis for Friday.

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