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not, or cannot do this, he in vain pretends to clear or distinct ideas: it is plain his are not so; and therefore there can be expected nothing but obscurity and confusion, where such terms are made use of, which have not such a precise determination.

Upon this ground I have thought determined ideas a way of speaking less liable to mistakes, than clear and distinct; and where men have got such determined ideas of all that they reason, inquire, or argue about, they will find a great part of their doubts and disputes at an end. The greatest part of the questions and controversies that perplex mankind, depending on the doubtful and uncertain use of words, or (which is the same) indetermined ideas, which they are made to stand for; I have made choice of these terms to signify, 1. Some immediate object of the mind, which it perceives and has before it, distinct from the sound it uses as a sign of it. 2. That this idea, thus determined, i. e. which the mind has in itself, and knows and sees there, be determined without any change to that name, and that name determined to that precise idea. If men had such determined ideas in their inquiries and discourses, they would both discern how far their own inquiries and discourses went, and avoid the greatest part of the disputes and wranglings they have with others.

Besides this, the bookseller will think it necessary I should advertise the reader, that there is an addition of two chapters wholly new; the one of the association of ideas, the other of enthusiasm. These, with some other larger additions never before printed, he has engaged to print by themselves, after the same manner, and for the same purpose as was done when this Essay had the second impression.

In the sixth edition, there is very little added or altered; the greatest part of what is new is contained in the 21st chapter of the second book, which any one, if he thinks it worth while, may, with a very little labour, transcribe into the margin of the former edition.

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3. Universal consent proves nothing

innate.

4. What is, is; and it is impossible
for the same thing to be, and not
to be; not universally assented to.
5. Not on the mind naturally im-
printed, because not known to
children, idiots, &c.

6, 7. That men know them when

they come to the use of reason,

answered.

8. If reason discovered them, that
would not prove them innate.

9-11. It is false that reason discovers

them.

12. The coming to the use of reason,

not the time we come to know

these maxims.

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19. Such less general propositions

known before these universal

maxims.

20. One and one equal to two, &c.

not general nor useful, answered.
These maxims not being known
sometimes until proposed, proves
them not innate.

21.

23.

24.

Implicitly known before proposing,

signifies that the mind is capable

of understanding them, or else

signifies nothing.

The argument of assenting on first
hearing is upon a false supposi-
tion of no precedent teaching.
Not innate, because not univer-
sally assented to.

25. These maxims not the first known.

26. And so not innate.

27. Not innate, because they appear

least, where what is innate shows

itself clearest.

28. Recapitulation.

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5. All our ideas are of the one or 14. That men dream without remem-

the other of these.

6. Observable in children.

7. Men are differently furnished with
these, according to the different
objects they converse with.

8. Ideas of reflection later, because
they need attention.

9. The soul begins to have ideas

when it begins to perceive.

bering it, in vain urged.

15. Upon this hypothesis, the thoughts
of a sleeping man ought to be
most rational.

16.

On this hypothesis the soul must
have ideas not derived from sen-
sation or reflection, of which there

is no appearance.

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