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3. Complex ideas are voluntary com- 19. Truth or falsehood always supbinations.

poses affirmation or negation.

4. Mixed modes, made of consistent 20. Ideas in themselves neither true ideas, are real.

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nor false.

But are false, first, when judged agreeable to another man's idea, without being so.

22. Secondly, when judged to agree to real existence, when they do not. Thirdly, when judged adequate without being so.

Of adequate and inadequate ideas.


1. Adequate ideas are such as perfectly represent their archetypes.


Fourthly, when judged to represent

2. Simple ideas all adequate.

the real essence.

3. Modes are all adequate.

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4, 5. Modes, in reference to settled names, may be inadequate.


More properly to be called right or wrong.

6,7. Ideas of substances, as referred to 27. Conclusion.

real essences, not adequate. 8-11. Ideas of substances, as collections of their qualities, are all inadequate.

12. Simple ideas iztura, and adequate. 19. Ideas of substances are exтUTα, and inadequate.

14. Ideas of modes and relations are archetypes, and cannot but be adequate.


Of true and false ideas.


Of the association of ideas.

1. Something unreasonable in most


2. Not wholly from self-love.
3. Nor from education.
4. A degree of madness.

5. From a wrong connexion of ideas.

6. This connexion how made.
7,8. Some antipathies an effect of it.
9. A great cause of errors.

10-12. Instances.

1. Truth and falsehood properly be- 13. Why time cures some disorders in longs to propositions.

the mind, which reason cannot.

2. Metaphysical truth contains a tacit 14-16. Farther instances of the effects proposition.

of the association of ideas.

3. No idea, as an appearance in the 17. Its influence on intellectual habits. mind, true or false. 18. Observable in different sects.

19. Conclusion.

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Of words or language in general. SECT. 1. Man fitted to form articulate sounds.

2. To make them signs of ideas. 3,4. To make general signs.

5. Words ultimately derived from such as signify sensible ideas.

6. Distribution.


Of the signification of words. 1. Words are sensible signs necessary for communication.

2, 3. Words are the sensible signs of his ideas who uses them.

4. Words often secretly referred, first,

to the ideas in other men's minds. 5. Secondly, to the reality of things. 6. Words by use readily excite ideas. 7. Words often used without signification.

19. Essences ingenerable and incorruptible.

20. Recapitulation.


Of the names of simple ideas. 1. Names of simple ideas, modes, and substances, have each something peculiar.

2. First, Names of simple ideas and substances, intimate real existence. 3. Secondly, Names of simple ideas and modes signify always both real and nominal essence.

4. Thirdly, Names of simple ideas undefinable.

5. If all were definable, it would be a process in infinitum.

6. What a definition is. 7. Simple ideas, why undefinable. 8,9. Instances, motion. 10. Light.

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11. General and universal are crea- Of the names of mixed modes and rela

tures of the understanding.

12. Abstract ideas are the essences of the genera and species.

13. They are the workmanship of the understanding, but have their similitude in the foundation of things.

14. Each distinct abstract idea is a distinct essence.

15. Real and nominal essence. 16. Constant connexion between the name and nominal essence. 17. Supposition, that species are distinguished by their real essences, useless.

18. Real and nominal essence the same in simple ideas and modes, different in substances.



1. They stand for abstract ideas as other general names.

2. First, The ideas they stand for are made by the understanding. 3. Secondly, Made arbitrarily, and without patterns.

4. How this is done.

5. Evidently arbitrary, in that the idea is often before the existence. 6. Instances, murder, incest, stabbing. 7. But still subservient to the end of language.

8. Whereof the intranslatable words of divers languages are a proof. 9. This shows species to be made for communication.

10, 11. In mixed modes, it is the name

The more general our ideas are, the more incomplete and partial they are.

that ties the combination together, | 31. But make several essences signified and makes it a species. by the same name. 12. For the originals of mixed modes, 32. we look no farther than the mind, which also shows them to be the workmanship of the understanding. 13. Their being made by the understanding without patterns, shows the reason why they are so compounded.

14. Names of mixed modes stand always for their real essences.

15. Why their names are usually got before their ideas.

16. Reason of my being so large on this subject.


Of the names of substances. 1. The common names of substances stand for sorts.

2. The essence of each sort is the abstract idea.

3. The nominal and real essence different.

4-6. Nothing essential to individuals. 7, 8. The nominal essence bounds the species.

9. Not the real essence which we know not.



This all accommodated to the end of speech.

Instance in cassiowary.

35. Men make the species. Instance gold.

36. Though nature makes the similitude.

37. And continues it in the races of

38. Each abstract idea is an essence.
39. Genera and species are in order to
naming. Instance watch.

40. Species of artificial things less con-
fused than natural.

41. Artificial things of distinct species. 42. Substances alone have proper


43. Difficulty to treat of words with words.

44, 45. Instance of mixed modes in kineah and niouph.

46, 47. Instance of substances in zahab. 48. Their ideas imperfect, and therefore various.


10. Not substantial forms, which we

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11. That the nominal essence is that whereby we distinguish species, farther evident from spirits.

12. Whereof there are probably numberless species.

13. The nominal essence that of the

species, proved from water and ice. 14-18. Difficulties against a certain

number of real essences.

19. Our nominal essences of substances, not perfect collections of properties.

21. But such a collection as our name stands for.

22. Our abstract ideas are to us the measures of species. Instances in that of man.

23. Species not distinguished by generation.

24. Not by substantial forms.

25. The specific essences are made by the mind.

26, 27. Therefore very various and uncertain.

28. But not so arbitrary as mixed modes.

29. Though very imperfect.

30. Which yet serve for common con


Therefore to fix their species a
real essence is supposed.
Which supposition is of no use.


Of particles.

1. Particles connect parts or whole sentences together.

2. In them consists the art of well speaking.

3, 4. They show what relation the mind gives to its own thoughts.

5. Instance in but.

6. This matter but lightly touched here.


Of abstract and concrete terms. 1. Abstract terms not predicable one of another, and why.

2. They show the difference of our ideas.

CHAPTER IX. Of the imperfection of words. 1. Words are used for recording and communicating our thoughts.

2. Any words will serve for recording. 3. Communication by words, civil or philosophical.

4. The imperfection of words, is the doubtfulness of their signification

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18. The names of simple ideas the least 34. Seventhly, Figurative speech also


19. And next to them simple modes. 20. The most doubtful, are the names of very compounded mixed modes and substances.

21. Why this imperfection charged upon words.

22, 23. This should teach us moderation in imposing our own sense of old authors.


Of the abuse of words.

1. Abuse of words.

2, 3. First, Words without any, or without clear ideas.

an abuse of language.

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4. Occasioned by learning names before the ideas they belong to.

Secondly, To have distinct ideas annexed to them in modes.


5. Secondly, Unsteady application of them.

And distinct and conformable in substances.

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6. Thirdly, Affected obscurity by wrong application.

7. Logic and dispute have much contributed to it.

8. Calling it subtilty

9. This learning very little benefits society.

10. But destroys the instruments of knowledge and communication. 11. As useful as to confound the sound of the letters.

12. This art has perplexed religion and justice.

13. And ought not to pass for learning. 14. Fourthly, Taking them for things.

Fourthly, To make known their meaning.

13. And that in three ways.


First, In simple ideas by synonymous terms or showing.

15. Secondly, In mixed modes by de


16. Morality capable of demonstration. 17. Definitions can make moral discourses clear.

18. And is the only way.

19. Thirdly, In substances by showing and defining.

20, 21. Ideas of the leading qualities of substances, are best got by showing.

22. The ideas of their powers best by, 25. Not easy to be made so.

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Of knowledge in general.

SECT. 1. Our knowledge conversant about our ideas.

2. Knowledge is the perception of the
agreement or disagreement of two

3. This agreement fourfold.
4. First, Of identity or diversity.
5. Secondly, Relation.

6. Thirdly, Of coexistence.
7. Fourthly, Of real existence.

8. Knowledge actual or habitual.
9. Habitual knowledge twofold.

Of the degrees of our knowledge. 1. Intuitive.

2. Demonstrative.

3. Depends on proofs.

4. But not so easy.

5. Not without precedent doubt. 6. Not so clear.

7. Each step must have intuitive evidence.

8. Hence the mistake ex præcognitis et præconcessis.

9. Demonstration not limited to quantity.

10-13. Why it has been so thought. 14. Sensitive knowledge of particular


7. How far our knowledge reaches.
8. First, Our knowledge of identity
and diversity, as far as our ideas.
9. Secondly, Of coexistence a very
little way.


Because the connexion between most simple ideas is unknown. 11. Especially of secondary qualities. 12-14. And farther, because all connexion between any secondary and primary qualities is undiscoverable, 15. Of repugnancy to coexist larger. 16. Of the coexistence of powers a very little way.

17. Of spirits yet narrower.

18. Thirdly, Of other relations, it is not
easy to say how far. Morality ca-
pable of demonstration.

19. Two things have made moral ideas
thought incapable of demonstra-
tion. Their complexedness and
want of sensible representations.
20. Remedies of those difficulties.
21. Fourthly, Of real existence, we
have an intuitive knowledge of our
own, demonstrative of God's, sen-
22. Our ignorance great.
sitive of some few other things.

23. First, One cause of it want of ideas,
either such as we have no concep-
tion of, or such as particularly we
have not.

15. Knowledge not always clear, where 24. Because of their remoteness, or,

the ideas are so.


Of the extent of human knowledge. 1. First, No farther than we have ideas. 2. Secondly, No farther than we can perceive their agreement or disagreement.

3. Thirdly, Intuitive knowledge extends itself not to all the relations of all our ideas.

4. Fourthly, Not demonstrative knowledge.

5. Fifthly, Sensitive knowledge narrower than either.

6. Sixthly, Our knowledge therefore narrower than our ideas.

25. Because of their minuteness.
26. Hence no science of bodies.

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