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comes quite active during the second year, and reaches full activity about the tenth year. Childhood is peculiarly the time to cultivate concrete memory, or memory of things and concrete facts. About the tenth year the pupil begins to acquire and recall readily semi-abstractions, or the concrete and the abstract combined. By the fourteenth year abstract memory, or memory of classifications, principles, and inferences, is quite active, and seems to be fully active at eighteen. From the tenth year to the eighteenth year is pre-eminently the period for the higher forms of memory-culture. In manhood, memory is kept vigorous by use, and certainly may be greatly strengthened in special directions. Even the aged may, by systematic effort, keep memory strong. The tendency to live exiled in the past should be resisted. The world is full of new beauty and new truth. Let the aged keep en rapport with the present, and keep memory vigorous by constantly recalling recent acquisitions.

Development of Memory.*-We recall most readily what we apprehend most clearly. Persistent effort in faithfully reproducing our past experiences educates memory. A good memory is of incalculable value. It enables us to compare, combine, and firmly interlock past and present acquisitions. One with a poor memory gropes in the dark. Because he can not command his facts, he can not do effective thinking. Great men have almost invariably possessed great memories.

[As a magnet will increase its force if a slight increase is made daily to the weight it supports, so the memory of numbers, dates, facts, and principles may be indefinitely increased by committing

*See "Education of Memory" in "Applied Psychology and Teaching."

an additional one or two each day to memory, and taking care by frequent reviews that nothing once memorized shall escape. But equal care should be taken not to overburden the power of recollection by undertaking too many new items at a time. Let the student make a special effort with precisely the kind of recollection that he is most deficient in, be it names, dates, shapes, or whatever it be, and he will find that, by persistent practice for a few months, he can bring the special power to the front. The habit of attention to likeness and difference, so that the mind at once takes in the species and differentia involuntarily, is the habit that secures good memory.]

Systematic and persistent exercise in recalling tends to develop memory. A plan of work that secures such exercise may be called a method of educating this power. Good study and good teaching promote the growth of memory.

Comparative Psychology.-The brute associates impressions, and present impressions suggest to it former impressions. The brute recalls its past experiences. As animal experience is limited to the sensuous, so brute recollection is limited to recalling sensuous impressions. Impressions are vague intellectual products lower than ideas. That present impressions tend to suggest past impressions is the great law of brute memory.


Review.-Explain intuition. Why are the perceptive faculties called intuitive powers? Define each of the perceptive powers. Distinguish sense-percepts, conscious-percepts, and noumenal-percepts. Give two examples of each. Etc. Take your examples and illustrations largely from the studies you are now pursuing. One example from your own experience may be worth more to you than ten from other sources.

What is meant by representation? By representative powers? What other names are applied to these powers? Name the three representative faculties. Give an example of each activity.

Analyze an act of memory. What four points do you discover? Why do you call these elements of memory? Does each complete act of memory involve these elements?

Explain retention. Illustrate. What is retained? Explain recollection. Give synonyms. Illustrate. Explain association. Illustrate. Explain recognition. Give examples.

Describe the office of memory. What do you mean by the function of a faculty? What do you mean by a faculty? Give two characteristics of memory. Give a distinction between consciousness and memory.

State the author's definition of memory; your definition; Everett's definition.

Give synonyms of memories. Illustrate each. What is a percept? A re-percept? Why do you call recollections intellectual? Give three points of difference between experiences and


What do you mean by energy? by soul-energies? by law? by laws of memory? Give the law of the brain. Give and explain its three requirements. Give the law of acquisition. Give and explain its three requirements.

Explain association and suggestion. Give the five ways in which ideas suggest each other. Illustrate by circles. Give the law of resemblance. Give three examples. Explain the law of contrast. Illustrate the law of contiguity. Give the law of correlation; also of analogy. Give examples of each.

What do you mean by the growth of memory? Explain the diagram showing the stages of memory-growth. What is meant by educating memory? How may you improve your memory?

Give your explanation of brute memory. How does brute memory differ from human memory?

Why is it important to be able
How do we forget?
graphic and other devices are

State the law of forgetfulness. to forget? What should we forget? Letter.-Show your friend that designed to aid him to gain clear views of self; but insist on his verifying everything for himself by constantly looking within. Try to interest him in the improvement of his memory.

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By this is meant the power to represent spontaneously our experiences in new forms which seem to be realities. Without purpose, the soul weaves into curious shapes its experiences. Self, as phantasy, does not create ideals, but merely conjoins experiences in new ways.

The soul is ever active. Intentional activity exhausts the physical organism. The brain needs rest. When I cease to think, and float off into dream-land, the brain rests, recuperates, but the soul continues its ceaseless activity. Self for his own amusement images an endless panorama. In revery, as in sleep, an endless chain of phantom-forms is ever passing. These pictures we call phantasms, and the power to produce them we term phantasy.*

Self, as memory, reproduces his past experiences unchanged. However faint our recollections, we recognize them as past experiences. But, in revery and in dreams, our experiences, strangely modified, are re-presented. Memory and sensation furnish materials. Self,

*This form of representation has been slighted by many psychologists. Most have treated it as a phase of imagination. I consider phantasy a distinct form of representation. This view seems to me to greatly simplify the subject. This orthography is preferred, because phantasy in this sense is a definite term. Webster says: "A phantasm is an image formed by the mind and supposed to be real." Phantasy, as here used, is the power to form phantasms. Fancy, a contraction for phantasy, is now used in so many senses as to be extremely objectionable.

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