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rule, however, holds good: thought is largely absent from our refreshing dreams.

5. Organic sensations modify dreams. The special senses cease to report ordinary excitations. The ears and the nose, as well as the eyes, are closed. But the conditions of the stomach and other organs strangely affect our dreams. How do late suppers affect our dreams?

6. The emotions are more or less active. In sweet, healthful sleep, our feelings are pleasant, and a feeling of satisfaction pervades our being. All goes well. But exciting dreams stir our anger, excite our mirthfulness, or move us to tears. In all forms of phantasy there seems to be a connecting current of feeling.

7. Memory as suggestion is active. One thing suggests another in an endless chain, but recognition is wanting. Thus self, as memory, from his experiences recalls the materials out of which he makes his phantasms. Phantasms pass as a rapidly moving panorama before the eye of consciousness. There is little or no attention. The medley lacks all system. Our waking experiences fail to suggest these fleeting specters. It is well that we do not remember dreams. We can hardly conceive a greater misfortune than to have the myriad phantasms of the night obtruding upon our waking life. We are conscious of our dreams at the time, and we often in our sleep recall and recognize former dreams. Here we find one of the great marvels of dream-land.

8. Phantasy revels in dream-land. While the work-a-day brain reposes and recuperates, self, as phantasy, calls into action the portions of the brain that repose during directed effort. This hint of infinite wisdom can not be mistaken. The never-wearying soul conforms to the needs of a material organism.

Phantasy in Somnambulism.—One or more of the sensor organs is excited. The motor organs are stimulated to action by the phantasm. Sleep-walking is the ordinary form of somnambulism. Sometimes the thinking faculties are intensely active, and difficult problems are worked out. The phantasm seems reality, and the dreamer becomes an actor. Seldom do somnambulists remember their exploits.

Phantasy in Mesmerism, Clairvoyance, etc.-Mesmerism and clairvoyance are forms of induced revery. While the will is passive, some of the faculties are stimulated to intense activity. Phantasms seem realities, and the muscular organs respond to the excitation. Through suggestions, the operator induces phantasms, and thus leads the mesmerized to do strange things.

Phantasy in Insanity, Drunkenness, etc.-Insanity is. such an affection of the brain as renders it an unfit organism for mental action. Insanity is a disease of the brain. Phantasms possess the soul. An insane man is no longer a self-directing person. The creations of phantasy occasioned by a diseased brain are to him the only realities. The phantasms assume every possible form. To the soul embodied in a whiskey-soaked brain, snakes and demons are fearful realities.

Phantasy in Nerve-Diseases.-Internal excitations of the sensor organs are referred to external causes. Waking dreams are believed to be external realities. Illusions of this kind are myriad.

1. Vision. Internal excitations of the optic apparatus occasion the appearance of external images. The victim believes these mental images to be real, external objects. Many honestly believe that they have seen friends long dead. Vision is admirably explained by Shakespeare in the dagger-scene in Macbeth. He gives the exact physiological explanation, in language which, for accuracy and brevity, can not be surpassed. He calls it

"A dagger of the mind, a false creation,

Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain." Intense emotion, driving the blood to the brain, heats and oppresses the nerve-centers, producing "a heat-oppressed brain." By a brain so oppressed, phantasms-daggers of the mind-are created and projected into space. Nerve-diseases produce similar results. Auditory illusions, tactile illusions, gustatory illusions, and olfacto illusions may be accounted for in the same way.

2. Hysteria is hydra-headed illusion, occasioned by nerve-diseases. The victim believes the illusion reality. Phantasy dominates reason. Disillusion is difficult and sometimes impossible.

Happy Dreams.-It may be well to ponder some of the conditions favoring pleasant dreams:

1. Physical. Suitable food and warmth, good digestion, sufficient exercise, and proper recreation are essential to refreshing dreams. Avoid exhaustion.

2. Psychical. A good conscience, with cheerful, earnest work and rational recreation, prepare us for happy dreams. Avoid worry as you avoid sin.

3. Things to cherish. During our waking hours we should acquire knowledge and cherish everything beautiful and pure. We should labor unselfishly for human good. We should cherish every high and ennobling ideal. Our phantasms will thus become refreshing,

pure, and elevating.

4. Things to avoid. As we avoid deadly poisons, so should we avoid low and impure companionship, literature, or thoughts. If cherished, such things become nests of vipers and hosts of fiends to trouble us in our dreams. Avoid telling dreams. Even when they recur to you, drive them away by earnest work. Encourage no one to tell dreams in your presence. Avoid associating much with persons so weak as to believe in dreams and presentiments. So may your dreams be pleasant.

Comparative Psychology.-Numerous indications authorize the conclusions that brutes are endowed with the power to form phantasms. The dog, like some men, talks in his sleep. The horse evidently sees ghosts. The brute perceives, remembers, forms phantasms. But these representations are sensual and indescribably crude.


Review. Give the difference between presentative and re-presentative powers. Why are the perceptive faculties called presentative powers? Give the distinction between a percept and a re-percept. Do we recall emotions? What is the office of sense-perception? Consciousness? Memory? Define each. Etc.

Analyze an act of phantasy. Out of what are phantasms made? Does self as phantasy create ? Mention some characteristics of phantasy. State the office of phantasy. Specify. What is a phantasm?

Give author's definition of phantasy; yours; Porter's.

State the relation of phantasy to memory; to the emotions; to will; to thought; to imagination.

Tell what you know about dreams. What has phantasy to do with dreams? Why do we not remember dreams? Explain somnambulism; mesmerism; drunkenness; insanity; visions; hysteria.

Name the conditions of happy dreams. Should we often tell dreams? Why?

Diagram and Letter.—You may now make an analysis of Chapter XI, and embrace this in your letter to your friend. Write a careful letter. Most persons have confused notions of phantasy, strangely mixing memory and imagination with phantasy. If in your power, make the distinctions clear to your friend.



By this is meant our power to intentionally represent our acquisitions in new forms. Out of our experiences, recalled and immediate, we make new wholes. As the potter molds clay, so we mold our acquisitions into new forms. As perception, self perceives things having properties. As memory, self represents his past exp

riences unchanged. Out of materials furnished by perception and memory, the mind, as imagination, constructs a new world called the ideal world.

Acts of Imagination Analyzed.-This block is a cubic foot. Now it is a cubic yard, now a cubic rod, now a cubic mile, now a cubic world. Now it is a rhomboid, now a cylinder, now an ellipse. Now it is wood, now iron, now gold. Now it is red, now yellow, now green. Self, as imagination, changes size, changes form, changes material, changes color. You may now make out of materials furnished, a tree. You have gold, iron, copper, silver. Your tree has copper roots, iron trunk and branches, silver leaves, and gold fruit. You may make five different trees out of the same material. You may also make of the same materials five chairs. Here you observe self, as imagination, constructing new wholes out of materials furnished.

You may now blot out St. Louis and make a city to suit yourself. The Gulf now extends to St. Louis, and the city is built at the foot of a snow-capped mountain. But you are the creator of this new St. Louis. You find that self, as imagination, erases old forms and constructs new forms out of materials furnished by memory.

Office of Imagination.-Imagination is the creative power of the soul. It is our power to give shape to our acquisitions. Self, as imagination, so changes and combines his acquisitions as to form new wholes. These new combinations are called creations of the mind. In this sense, self, as imagination, creates.

1. Self, as imagination, modifies his acquisitions. The size, the form, the color, and the materials are in

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