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CHAPTER XIII.

REPRESENTATION-GENERAL VIEW.

REPRESENTATIVE knowing is making present again past experiences. Presentation is the capability of the mind to make things present to itself for the first time. Representation includes the capabilities of self to represent his past experiences in old and new forms. Self represents his experiences unchanged or in modified forms. Representation is a general name including a group of related but distinct activities. This group of soul-energies is known by the following

Names.

The Representative Powers.

The Reproductive and Constructive Imagination.
The Conceptive Powers.

Representation.-Memory. Phantasy. Imagination. Because images are most prominent in representation, some writers consider these powers as merely forms of imagination. This view tends to confusion, as nearly all writers treat memory and imagination as distinct powers. "Representative powers" best expresses the meaning, and is now one of the best-established expressions in mental science.

1. The representative powers are our capabilities to make present again, in old or new forms, our past experiences. Representation is memory when we recognize the representations as past experiences. Representation is phantasy when the new forms of our past experiences are phantasms. Representation is

imagination when the new forms of our past experi

ences are ideals.

The Representative Powers.

Memory.

Phantasy.
Imagination.

2. Memory is the power of self to represent in old forms, called memories, his past experiences. Memory is the capability to recall past experiences unchanged. As images are the most prominent features of our recollections, memory is sometimes called reproductive imagination. Memory is every way preferable. It neither misleads nor confuses. It is specific, and is in universal use. Treating memory as a group of faculties can serve no good purpose. Self, as memory, does all recalling. Take away memory, and our past would be a blank. The soul, as memory, reproduces its past experiences. Retention, recollection, association, and recognition are merely elements of complete acts of memory.

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3. Phantasy is the power of self to represent spontaneously his past experiences in new forms called phantasms. Self, as memory, recalls his experiences; self, as phantasy, spontaneously weaves these experiences into new forms called phantasms. Phantasy is the capability to manufacture these new forms. In this form of representation the soul, at the time, is not conscious of making these pictures out of its revived experiences; it is only conscious of the phantasms. Phantasy is undirected or drifting activity; hence it is called the

drifting imagination. Fantasy, fancy, and phantasy are merely different forms of the same word. Fancy is used in many senses, and is extremely indefinite. Drifting imagination is specific, but tends to confuse. As phantasy is never used but to designate this faculty, it is given the preference. Because images are so conspicuous in recollections, some use phantasy and recollection as synonyms. But the soul, as phantasy, does no recollecting; it merely weaves its recollections, without intention or effort, into new forms. Representation, as phantasy, conjoins revived experiences, forming phantasms.

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4. Imagination is the power of self to represent intentionally his past experiences in new forms, called ideals. Self, as memory, reproduces his experiences; self, as imagination, manufactures out of these experiences ideals. Memory, in this form of representation, is subordinate, merely furnishing materials; imagination is the master builder. Imagination is the capability to evolve the ideal from the actual. All agree in calling the power of the soul purposely to create, or construct, or form ideals, imagination. To distinguish imagination proper from reproductive imagination or memory, and from drifting imagination or phantasy, it is sometimes called the creative or constructive imagination. Imagination, unmodified, best designates this power.

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5. Representative knowledge is re-knowledge. Knowledge gained directly is intuitive knowledge, or original knowledge, or presentative knowledge, or perceptive knowledge; but when we re-know, our cognitions are called re-knowledge, or representative knowledge, or revived knowledge.

Forms of Representative Knowledge.—

Memories.

Phantasms.

Ideals.

6. Memories are reproduced experiences. The original experiences or old forms are recalled just as they were experienced. Products of memory are reproduced acquisitions. When we recall our experiences unchanged, we call them memories, recollections, or remembrances. Remembered percepts are simply repercepts. Remembered concepts are merely re-concepts. Remembered judgments are re-judgments.

Misleading. To call memory-products concepts or conceptions is misleading. This relic of the old psychology tends to confuse the learner. A concept is a general notion, and conception is the power to discern general notions. These terms are thus used in logic and literature as well as in modern psychology.

Memories.

Recollections.

Remembrances.

Re-percepts.
Re-concepts.

Memory-Products are called

Conceptions (obsolete and misleading).

7. Phantasms are crude mental pictures which seem to be realities. Webster says: "A phantasm is an image formed by the mind and supposed to be real." The soul, out of its revived experiences, spontaneously forms a panorama for its own amusement. These moving scenes appear to be objective realities,

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