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world. Sense-perception, the power to gain knowledge through the senses, is most expressive, and is now universally used. For brevity, perception is often used, but is indefinite.

Sensation is the power to feel consciously sensor excitations. You speak. Sound-waves vibrate through the air, in my ears, through my auditory nerves, in my auditory ganglia. I feel the excitation; I hear you speak. I interpret the sensations; your words are to me signs of ideas. Self, as sense-perception, interprets sensations-converts sensations into ideas.

Sensation is the basis of all knowing. Without sensations there can be no sense-perceptions. Without particular notions there can be no general notions. In order that sense-perceptions may be, sensations must be. It is a curious fact that all our knowing begins with blind feelings. Out of these blind feelings we make our senseideas. Sense-perception includes sensation.

Acts of Sense-Perception analyzed.—Notice carefully yourself perceiving. What do you do when you perceive? What are the steps in acts of sense-perception? What are the products? Take this object. You press it; it is soft. You touch it; it is smooth. You smell it; it is fragrant. You drop it; the sound is slight. You see it; it is white. You interpret these sensations, and cognize the object as a rose. In this way you may profitably examine many acts of perception. You find in an act of sense-perception four distinct elements: sensation, recalling, perceiving, and self-perceiving.

1. Sensations are the stuff out of which sense-ideas are made. The blind see no colors; the deaf hear no sounds. The blind gain no percepts of color; the deaf gain no percepts of sound.

2. Recalling other experiences, you refer your sensations, immediate and revived, to the object. You perceive the fragrant white rose.

3. Perceiving. Fusing the sensations, immediate and recalled, you form an idea of the object. You interpret your sensations, and make out of them the notion, this soft, fragrant white rose. This is sense-per

ceiving.

4. Self-perceiving. You are aware that you perceive the rose. You stand face to face with material objects. You know directly self perceiving material things.

From your analysis of many acts of sense-perception you discover the

Office of Sense-Perception.—The soul is a unit, but is capable of acting in many ways. The distinct ways in which the soul can act are called soul-energies, mental powers, mental faculties, or mental capabilities. Office is used to designate the special work of a mental power in the mental economy. Self, as attention, concentrates effort; concentration is the office of attention. Self, as memory, recalls; recollection is the office of memory. Self, as sense-perception, interprets sensations, or converts sensations into ideas; interpreting sensations is the office of sense-perception. The mind, as sense-perception, forms sense-ideas, or gains a direct knowledge of material objects. From your analysis of acts of sense-perception you discover the

Characteristics of Sense-Perception.-This power of self is distinguished from all his other capabilities by marked peculiarities:

1. Self, as sense-perception, knows intuitively physical phenomena. I know the board is black because I

see it black. I know the sugar is sweet because I taste it sweet. So with all sense-knowing. I look directly on material phenomena. The soul, as sense-perception, stands face to face with the outer world. I know immediately objects as extended and resisting. I do not need to prove to myself that the rose smells sweet; I know it intuitively. I know the wall is here, for I see it extended, and feel it resisting my efforts to pass through.

2. The mind, as sense-perception, is limited to physical phenomena. A being endowed merely with senseperception would forever remain ignorant of self. Self, as sense-perception, knows physical phenomena, and nothing more.

3. The mind, as sense-perception, gains only concrete individual notions of material objects. Beings not endowed with other powers are incapable of forming class-notions. The brute perceives individual trees, but is incapable of thinking the many trees into one class.

Definitions of Sense-Perception.-Self, as sense-perception, explores the outer world. Physical phenomena come to us vibrating in our sensoriums. The soul is aware of its sensor excitations, and assimilates its sensations, immediate and revived, into notions called senseideas. The capability to convert sensations into ideas is termed sense-perception.

1. Sense-perception is the power to know immediately material objects. Strictly, sense-perception is the power to know immediately physical phenomena. But sensations are signs of material things. The mind, as sense-perception, translates these signs into notions of things. These concrete individual notions of material

things are termed sense-ideas. Self stands face to face with the material world-hence knows immediately, knows intuitively material objects as having properties. We see the tall tree, not the abstract phenomena, tall. We perceive noumena as well as phenomena. We gain a knowledge of things, not of mere abstract impressions. 2. Original. Write your definition of sense-perception. What does it mean to you? Remember that what others have thought will prove beneficial to you only as it leads you to better and clearer thinking.

3. Various Definitions.—1. SULLY: Sense-perception is the power to integrate sense-impressions, immediate and revived, into percepts. 2. PORTER: Sense-perception is the power to gain a knowledge of material objects through the sensorium. 3. MAHAN: Sense-perception is the faculty to apprehend the qualities of material substances. 4. McCоSH: Sense-perception is the power to gain a knowledge of things affecting us, external to ourselves and extended. 5. WHITE: Sense-perception is the power to know directly present and material objects.

Some writers seem to teach that self as sense-perception knows directly the noumena as well as phenomena. To me it is clear that self as noumenal-intuition perceives substance underlying phenomena, while self as sense-intuition perceives physical phenomena and nothing more.

Sense-Percepts.-The ideas we gain through the senses are called sense-ideas, or sense-percepts. A sensepercept is a product of sense-perception. I see, hear, touch, smell, and taste this orange. The idea, this orange, is a sense-percept. Sense-percepts are our ideas of material things.

1. Sense-percepts are concrete notions.

Concrete

ideas are ideas of things with qualities. The notion, red, is abstract; but the notion, this red rose, is a concrete idea-is a sense-percept.

2. Sense-percepts are particular notions. Fruit is a general notion, but this green apple is a particular notion-is a sense-percept. Sensations, immediate and remembered, are the materials of which sense-percepts are made. Sense-percepts are our concrete individual notions of material things.

3. Re-percepts are remembered percepts. You observe the ocean-steamer. The idea thus made present is a sense-percept. When you recall this idea and thus make it present again, it is called a re-percept.

Remark.-Some critical thinkers limit the use of sense-percept to the product of a single sense, and call our ideas of objects senseconcepts, or individual concepts. But Sully, McCosh, Porter, and others, term our concrete ideas of external objects sense-percepts. Percept is used in this sense in literature and life. A concept is always a class-notion, but a percept is a notion of an individual thing.

Direct and Indirect Sense-Percepts.-I see, and hear, and feel, and smell, and taste this red, dull-sounding, mellow, fragrant, sweet apple. I thus gain a direct sense-percept. Ideas gained directly from sensations, immediate and revived, are direct sense-percepts. They are also called original sense-percepts. But my idea of the distance across the river involves judgment and experience, as well as sensation, and is an indirect sensepercept. I hear sounds in a distant room which I know are caused by a piano. The blind substitute touch and hearing for sight. We learn by experience to know the presence of musk by the peculiar odor. By experience we learn to locate the sense of smell in the nose. Ideas thus gained indirectly from sensations are indi rect sense-percepts.

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