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I. Names.

Sense-perception and sense-intuition.

Outer-perception and external-perception.
Objective-perception and perception.

II. Elements of Sense-perceiving.

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VIII. Laws of Sense-perception Growth.

A good brain conditions the growth of sense-perception.
Well-directed effort in acquiring sense-knowledge devel-

ops sense-perception.

Objective work educates sense-perception.

IX. Comparative Psychology.

Brutes perceive.

Brutes do not have ideas.



By this is meant the power to perceive self-acting. We live in a wonder-world. Beneath us, around us, above us, are the earth and the heavens with their varied tenantry. From this outer world come to us, vibrating through the sensor lines, marvelous messages. Light flashes along the optic line, and I behold a world of color, form, and beauty. Sound-waves vibrate through the auditory line, and I live in a world of speech and song. Flavor and odor-waves come to me, and I live in a world of grateful food and sweet odors. Touch moves his magic wand, and I am gratified by balmy breezes. Endowed with sense-perception, I stand face to face with the outer world.

We perceive also an inner world, and find it likewise infinitely wonderful. This new world is called the world of mind. Self imagines, sympathizes, wills. The soul perceives itself perceiving, reasoning, choosing. The capability to perceive self acting is called conscious-perception. Endowed with this power, I stand face to face with the inner world. This power is designated by various

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Inner-perception and outer-perception, subjectiveperception and objective-perception, are significant and corresponding terms. As all perceiving is intuitive, we call the power of immediate insight into the mindworld conscious-intuition, just as we call the power of direct insight into the matter-world sense-intuition. Consciousness and self-consciousness, however, are the commonly accepted names of this faculty.

Acts of Self-Consciousness analyzed. We look within and see self at work. I perceive myself observing the evening star. I perceive myself grieving over the loved and lost. I perceive myself resolving to work more systematically. The perceiving of self as beholding, grieving, resolving, is an act of self-consciousness. In such acts we discover the elements of an act of consciousness.

1. Mental phenomena. Mind is self-acting and always acting. As mental acts appear-are perceived by the soul-they are called mental phenomena. The expression, mental phenomena, includes all knowing, feeling, and willing of which the soul is conscious. Where there are no mental acts, there can be no consciousness▲

2. Self-consciousness. There never can be an appearance unless some thing appears. Intuitively we perceive substance underlying phenomena. You taste the sweet apple, not abstract sweetness. You see the beautiful picture, not abstract beauty. You perceive intuitively physical substance having physical powers or properties. So you perceive yourself thinking; you do not perceive abstract thought. You perceive yourself rejoicing, not abstract joy. Intuitively you perceive self exerting mental power. As you perceive yourself acting, you are self-conscious.

3. Conscious-percepts. As ideas gained through the senses are called sense-percepts, so ideas gained through consciousness are called conscious-percepts. Through consciousness, directly or indirectly, self gains its elementary knowledge of the inner world. A being not endowed with consciousness would have no inner world. By analyzing your own conscious acts, you will gain an insight into the mind-world. Of what are you conscious? What is it that is conscious? What are the products of consciousness? How do you know the distinction between sensation and perception? between desire and will?

Office of Consciousness.-Mind is self-acting. A faculty is a mode of self-activity, and is merely a power or capability of the mind. The office of a faculty is its function in the mental economy. Function, office, work, are synonymous terms. Self as consciousness perceives himself acting; internal vision is the office of consciousness. The work of this faculty will be better understood by a more minute examination :

1. Self, as consciousness, intuitively knows his own acts as his. I know, I feel, I will, and I know that these are my acts. As outer-perception, self knows immediately the outer world. As inner-perception, self knows immediately the inner world.

2. Self, as consciousness, perceives himself knowing, feeling, willing. We behold ourselves choosing, enjoying, thinking. We gaze directly upon self acting. Consciousness opens to us the inner world.

3. Self, as consciousness, unitizes his experiences. Inner-perception performs an office in our mental economy similar to that of the connective tissue in our

physical economy. The one gives unity to our bodies, the other to our mental acts.* The experiences of a long and eventful life are woven into one marvelous web. Consciousness gives unity to mental activity and mental achievement.

Characteristics of Consciousness. The soul is endowed with the capacity to perceive itself remembering, repining, resolving. What peculiar features mark this marvelous power? How do we distinguish self-consciousness from other mental capabilities?

1. Self, as consciousness, beholds himself acting. Like sense-knowing, conscious-knowing is intuitive. We have direct insight into the workings of our own minds. Consciousness is the mind's eye, or, as Wundt terms it, internal vision.


2. Certainty characterizes conscious-knowing. know that I feel disappointed. I know that I intended to tell the truth. I know that I see the setting sun. I can not be mistaken. The testimony of consciousness is final. I know ends controversy. Consciousness is infallible.

3. Consciousness attends all our distinct mental acts. In this particular, consciousness resembles attention and memory, but differs from all the other faculties. Whenever a thought, a feeling, or a purpose stirs a soul, consciousness is there. Waking or sleeping, self seems to be ever acting and ever conscious. Inner-perception, it is certain, accompanies all distinct mental acts. An act that does not occur in the field of consciousness is not a distinct mental act.

* Hopkins.

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