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surroundings in all respects adapted to him, reflecting his conduct as in a mirror, easily and promptly revealing to him its effects and consequences, readily disclosing to him and others his true condition, and affording a minimum of opportunities for injury from the outbreaks and consequences of his inner failings.

§ 9. The prescriptive, interfering education, indeed, can be justified only on two grounds: either because it teaches the clear, living thought, self-evident truth, or because it holds up a life whose ideal value has been established in experience. But, where self-evident, living, absolute truth rules, the eternal principle itself reigns, as it were, and will on this account maintain a passive, following character. For the living thought, the eternal divine principle as such demands and requires free self-activity and self-determination on the part of man, the being created for freedom in the image of God.

[Self-activity, in Froebel's sense of the word, implies not merely that the learner shall do all himself, not merely that he will be benefitted only by what he himself does: it implies that at all times his whole self shall be active, that the activity should enlist his entire self in all the phases of being. The law of self-activity demands not activity alone, but all-sided activity of the whole being, the whole self.

There is much difference between the self-activity of Pestalozzi and that of Froebel. The former has reference more to acquisitive or learning processes that fill the memory with little that bears directly on mental expansion; it is much concerned with long lists of names, verbal facts and formulas, recitation, and with imitation even in reading, writing, singing, and drawing. Froebel's self-activity applies to the whole being; it would have all that is in the child selfactively growing, simultaneously and continuously. He looks upon the child as an individuality distinctly separated from all other individualities that make up the universe, but with an all-sided instinctive yearning for unification with these, with points eager for

contact in all directions of being, and his self-activity applies to these outward tendencies, to doing in its widest sense, as much as it does to the inward tendencies, or to seeing in its widest sense.

Froebel, consequently, lays more stress than Pestalozzi on spontaneity of action, on the adaptation of all activities to the child's power, and on the full, whole-hearted, sympathetic, active co-operation of the teacher, whom he urges "to live (to learn and do) with the children."

Froebel's self-activity is necessarily coupled with joy on the part of the child. To him joy is the inward reaction of self-activity. Here, too, he is closely followed by Spencer, who asks that "throughout youth, as in early childhood and maturity, the process (of intellectual education) shall be one of self-instruction"; and "that the mental action induced by this process shall be throughout intrinsically grateful."

It is a matter of great regret that Spencer, who seems to be quite familiar with Pestalozzi, was unacquainted with Froebel's work. What a weapon of strength Froebel's thoughts and suggestions would have proved in Spencer's hands!—Tr.]

§ 10. Again, a life whose ideal value has been perfectly established in experience never aims to serve as model in its form, but only in its essence, in its spirit. It is the greatest mistake to suppose that spiritual, human perfection can serve as a model in its form. This accounts for the common experience that the taking of such external manifestations of perfection as examples, instead of elevating mankind, checks, nay, represses, its development.

§ 11. Jesus himself, therefore, in his life and in his teachings, constantly opposed the imitation of external perfection. Only spiritual, striving, living perfection is to be held fast as an ideal; its external manifestation

-on the other hand-its form should not be limited. The highest and most perfect life which we, as Christians, behold in Jesus-the highest known to mankind—

is a life which found the primordial and ultimate reason of its existence clearly and distinctly in its own being; a life which, in accordance with the eternal law, came from the eternally creating All-Life, self-acting and selfpoised. This highest eternally perfect life itself would have each human being again become a similar image of the eternal ideal, so that each again might become a similar ideal for himself and others; it would have each human being develop from within, self-active and free, in accordance with the eternal law. This is, indeed, the problem and the aim of all education in instruction and training; there can and should be no other. We see, then, that even the eternal ideal is following, passive, in its requirements concerning the form of being.

12. Nevertheless, in its inner essence (and we see this in experience), the living thought, the eternal spiritual ideal, ought to be and is categorical and mandatory in its manifestations: and we see it, indeed, sternly mandatory, inexorable, and inflexible, but only when the requirement appears as a pronounced necessity in the essence of the whole, as well as in the nature of the dividual, and can be recognized as such in him to whom it is addressed; only where the ideal speaks as the organ of necessity, and, therefore, always relatively. The ideal becomes mandatory only where it supposes that the person addressed enters into the reason of the requirement with serene, child-like faith, or with clear, manly insight. It is true, in word or example, the ideal is mandatory in all these cases, but always only with reference to the spirit and inner life, never with reference to outer form.

In good education, then, in genuine instruction, in



true training, necessity should call forth freedom; law, self-determination; external compulsion, inner freewill; external hate, inner love. Where hatred brings forth hatred; law, dishonesty and crime; compulsion, slavery; necessity, servitude; where oppression destroys and debases; where severity and harshness give rise to stubbornness and deceit-all education is abortive. In order to avoid the latter and to secure the former, all prescription should be adapted to the pupil's nature and needs, and secure his co-operation. This is the case when all education in instruction and training, in spite of its necessarily categorical character, bears in all details and ramifications the irrefutable and irresistible impress that the one who makes the demand is himself strictly and unavoidably subject to an eternally ruling law, to an unavoidable eternal necessity, and that, therefore, all despotism is banished.

§ 13. All true education in training and instruction should, therefore, at every moment, in every demand and regulation, be simultaneously double-sided-giving and taking, uniting and dividing, prescribing and following, active and passive, positive yet giving scope, firm and yielding; and the pupil should be similarly conditioned: but between the two, between educator and pupil, between request and obedience, there should invisibly rule a third something, to which educator and pupil are equally subject. This third something is the right, the best, necessarily conditioned and expressed without arbitrariness in the circumstances. The calm recognition, the clear knowledge, and the serene, cheerful obedience to the rule of this third something is the particular feature that should be constantly and

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