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clearly manifest in the bearing and conduct of the educator and teacher, and often firmly and sternly emphasized by him. The child, the pupil, has a very keen feeling, a very clear apprehension, and rarely fails to distinguish, whether what the educator, the teacher, or the father says or requests is personal or arbitrary, or whether it is expressed by him as a general law and necessity.

§ 14. This obedience, this trustful yielding to an unchangeable third principle to which pupil and teacher are equally subject, should appear even in the smallest details of every demand of the educator and teacher. Hence, the general formula of instruction is: Do this and observe what follows in this particular case from thy action, and to what knowledge it leads thee. Similarly, the precept for life in general and for every one is: Exhibit only thy spiritual essence, thy life, in the external, and by means of the external in thy actions, and observe the requirements of thy inner being and its

nature.

Jesus himself charges man in and with this precept to acknowledge the divinity of his mission and of his inner life, as well as the truth of his teaching; and this is, therefore, the precept that opens the way to the knowledge of all life in its origin and nature, as well as of all truth (see § 23).

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This explains and justifies, too, the next requirement, and indicates, at the same time, the manner of its fulfillment: The educator, the teacher, should make the individual and particular general, the general par ticular and individual, and elucidate both in life; he should make the external internal, and the internal ex

ternal, and indicate the necessary unity of both; he should consider the finite in the light of the infinite, and the infinite in the light of the finite, and harmonize both in life; he should see and perceive the divine essence in whatever is human, trace the nature of man to God, and seek to exhibit both within one another in life (see $25).

This appears from the nature of man the more clearly and definitely, the more distinctly and unmistakably, the more man studies himself in himself, in the growing human being, and in the history of human development.

§ 15. Now, the representation of the infinite in the finite, of the eternal in the temporal, of the celestial in the terrestrial, of the divine in and through man, in the life of man by the nursing of his originally divine nature, confronts us unmistakably on every side as the only object, the only aim of all education, in all instruction and training. Therefore man should be viewed from this only true standpoint immediately with his appearance on earth; nay, as in the case of Mary, immediately with his annunciation, and he should be thus heeded and nursed while yet invisible, unborn.

With reference to his eternal immortal soul, every human being should be viewed and treated as a manifestation of the Divine Spirit in human form, as a pledge of the love, the nearness, the grace of God, as a gift of God. Indeed, the early Christians viewed their children in this light, as is shown by the names they gave them.

Even as a child, every human being should be viewed and treated as a necessary essential member of

humanity; and therefore, as guardians, parents are responsible to God, to the child, and to humanity.

Similarly, parents should view their child in his necessary connection, in his obvious and living relations to the present, past, and future development of humanity, in order to bring the education of the child into harmony with the past, present, and future requirements of the development of humanity and of the race (see § 24). For man, as such, gifted with divine, earthly, and human attributes, should be viewed and treated as related to God, to nature, and to humanity; as comprehending within himself unity (God), diversity (nature), and individuality (humanity), as well as also the present, past, and future (see §§ 18, 61).

§ 16. Man, humanity in man, as an external manifestation, should, therefore, be looked upon not as perfectly developed, not as fixed and stationary, but as steadily and progressively growing, in a state of everliving development, ever ascending from one stage of culture to another toward its aim which partakes of the infinite and eternal.

It is unspeakably pernicious to look upon the development of humanity as stationary and completed, and to see in its present phases simply repetitions and greater generalizations of itself. For the child, as well as every successive generation, becomes thereby exclusively imitative, an external dead copy-as it were, a cast of the preceding one-and not a living ideal for its stage of development which it had attained in human development considered as a whole, to serve future generations in all time to come. Indeed, each successive generation and each successive individual human

being, inasmuch as he would understand the past and present, must pass through all preceding phases of human development and culture, and this should not be done in the way of dead imitation or mere copying, but in the way of living, spontaneous self-activity (see § 24). Every human being should represent these phases spontaneously and freely as a type for himself and others. For in every human being, as a member of humanity and as a child of God, there lies and lives humanity as a whole; but in each one it is realized and expressed in a wholly particular, peculiar, personal, unique manner; and it should be exhibited in each individual human being in this wholly peculiar, unique manner, so that the spirit of humanity and of God may be recognized ever more clearly and felt ever more vividly and distinctly in its infinity, eternity, and as comprehending all existing diversity.

Only this exhaustive, adequate, and comprehensive knowledge of man and of the nature of man, from which diligent search derives spontaneously, as it were, all other knowledge needful in the care and education of man-only this view of man, from the moment of his conception, can enable true, genuine education to thrive, blossom, bear fruit, and ripen.

[Herbert Spencer, in his "Education," states this less broadly in these words: "The education of the child must accord both in mode and arrangement with the education of mankind as considered historically; or, in other words, the genesis of knowledge in the individual must follow the same course as the genesis of knowledge in the race." He attributes the enunciation of this doctrine to M. Comte. Inasmuch as M. Comte published the first volume of his "Positive Philosophy" in 1830, and Froebel issued his "Education of Man" in 1826, the question of priority is easily settled. However, the thought was in the atmosphere of that period. It would

be easy to show traces of it in Pestalozzi, in Richter and Goethe, in Kant and Hegel, and certainly in Herbart; Froebel himself clearly foreshadows it in writings from the years 1821 and 1822. (See, also, note, § 24.)-Tr.]

§ 17. From this all that parents should do before and after the annunciation follows readily, clearly, and unmistakably to be pure and true in word and deed, to be filled and penetrated with the worth and dignity of man, to look upon themselves as the keepers and guardians of a gift of God, to inform themselves concerning the mission and destiny of man as well as concerning the ways and means for their fulfillment. Now, the destiny of the child as such is to harmonize in his development and culture the nature of his parents, the fatherly and motherly character, their intellectual and emotional drift, which, indeed, may lie as yet dormant in both of them, as mere tendencies and energies. Thus, too, the destiny of man as a child of God and of nature is to represent in harmony and unison the spirit of God and of nature, the natural and the divine, the terrestrial and the celestial, the finite and the infinite. Again, the destiny of the child as a member of the family is to unfold and represent the nature of the family, its spiritual tendencies and forces, in their harmony, all-sidedness, and purity; and, similarly, it is the destiny and mission of man as a member of humanity to unfold and represent the nature, the tendencies and forces, of humanity as a whole.

§ 18. Now, although the nature of the parents and of the family as a whole may still lie concealed in them, unrecognized even in its dimmest foreshadowings, it will be developed and represented most purely and

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