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perception is the source of all our knowledge. Froeb and his disciples would defend the great educational r former by saying that by beginning with immediat perception education is sure of arousing the self-activit of the pupil. Froebel's aim is to educate the pupi through his self-activity. This, we see at once, goe much further than the cultivation of perception. The pupil unfolds his will-power quite as much as his sense perception, and by this arrives in the surest way at think ing reason, which is the culmination of self-activity. The child is to begin with what he can easily grasp. That is well. But he must also begin with that which is attractive to him. The best of all is to begin with that activity which, while easy and attractive, leads him forward, develops all his powers, and makes him master of himself.

Froebel goes down into the genesis of objects of study in order to discover the relation of such objects to the nourishment of mind. The chemists and physiologists have ascertained the relation of bread and meat to the sustenance of human life. Froebel has investigated the relation of the child's activities in play to the growth of his mind. The mind grows by self-revelation. In play the child ascertains what he can do, and discovers his possibilities of will and thought by exerting his power spontaneously. In work he follows a task prescribed for him by another, and does not reveal his own proclivities and inclinations, but another's. In play he reveals his own original power. But there are two selves in the child-one is peculiar, arbitrary, capricious, different from all others, and hostile to them,

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self is reason, common to all humanity, unselfish and universal, feeding on truth and beauty and holiness. Both of these selves are manifested in play. There is revelation of bad as well as of good. Froebel, accordingly, attempts to organize a system of education that will unfold the rational self and chain down the irrational. He wishes to cultivate selfhood and repress selfishness. This must be done, if done effectively, by the pupil himself. If he does not chain the demon within him, external constraint will do it, but at the same time place its chains on the human being who has permitted his demon to go loose. Self-conquest is the only basis of true freedom.

The insights of Froebel into the unfolding of rational selfhood have enabled him to organize the method of infant education to which he, in 1840, gave the name of "Kindergarten." In the work here presented to the public, which was published fourteen years before that date, we have a discussion of the essential ideas which moved him in his subsequent experiments to discover the methods and more especially the appliances to be employed in early education.

Pestalozzi uttered the noble sentiment that all should be educated. All children of men are children of the same God, and all are born for an infinite career. This Christian doctrine he construed to mean that all should receive alike a school education, developing the intellect, and giving it possession of the power to master the treasures of science—the wisdom of the race. This intellectual education it should have, as well as religious and

moral education and training in a special industrial call


long been conceded). Froebel shares Pestalozzi's lightened sentiments, but goes further in the matter method. He invents an efficient means for securing t development of the child between the ages of three a six years a period when the child is not yet ready f the conventional studies of the school-a period whe he is not mature enough for work, and when there is temptation on the part of the parent to employ him a any labor. The child has, by the beginning of his fourt year, begun to outgrow the merely family life, and t look at the outside world with interest. He endeavor to symbolize life as it appears to him by plays and games The parents are unable to give the child within the house all the education that he needs at this period. He needs association with other children and with teachers from beyond the family circle. Froebel's invention is the happiest educational means for this symbolic epoch of infancy.

Froebel sees better than other educators the true means of educating the feelings, and especially the religious feelings. He reaches those feelings that are the germs of the intellect and will. It must be always borne in mind that clear ideas and useful deeds exist in the heart as undefined sentiments before they are born in the intellect and will.

Froebel is, in a peculiar sense, a religious teacher. All who read this book on the Education of Man will see that he is not only full of faith in God, but that his intellect is likewise illumined by theology. He sees the worlds of physical nature and human history as firmly established on a divine unity which to him is no abstraction but a creative


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God to him is infinite reason. Pestalozzi has the piety of the heart, while Froebel has also the piety of the intellect, which sees God as the principle of truth.

The work before us is divided substantially into two parts: The first deals with general principles and considers the development of man during infancy and boyhood. The second part (beginning with § 60) discusses the chief subjects of instruction, grouping them under (1) religion, (2) natural science and mathematics, (3) language, (4) art.

Especial attention is called to §§ 68-73, wherein the author deduces the forms of the crystal exhaustively from the nature of force and space, and makes some application of it to botany and human development. This deduction is worthy of the fertile and suggestive mind of Schelling or Oken. In subsequent sections he asserts (to our no small surprise) that even mathematics is the expression of life as such.

But Parts I and II (§§ 1-44) contain the most important doctrines of the work, and deserve a thorough annual study by every teacher's reading club in the land. A good plan for study is to form small classes of three to eight members, and meet weekly for two hours' discussion of the text, sentence by sentence. The slower one goes over the book, the faster grows his original power of thinking, and his ability to read profound and difficult writings.

Perhaps the greatest merit of Froebel's system is to be found in the fact that it furnishes a deep philosophy for the teachers. Most pedagogic works furnish only a code of management for the school-room. Froebel

the spiritual systems of philosophy that have prevailed in the world. A view of the world is a perpetual stimulant to thought-always prompting one to reflect on the immediate fact or event before him, and to discover its relation to the ultimate principle of the universe. It is the only antidote for the constant tendency of the teacher to sink into a dead formalism, the effect of too much iteration and of the practice of adjusting knowledge to the needs of the feeble-minded by perpetual explanation of what is already simple ad nauseam for the mature intelligence of the teacher. It produces a sort of pedagogical cramp in the soul for which there is no remedy like a philosophical view of the world, unless, perhaps, it be the study of the greatest poets, Shakespeare, Dante, or Homer. It is, I am persuaded, this fact that Froebel refers his principles to a philosophic view of the world-that explains the almost fanatical zeal of his followers, and, what is far more significant, the fact that those who persistently read his works are always growing in insight and in power of higher achieveW. T. HARRIS.


CONCORD, MASS., August, 1887.

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