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This was first published by Mr. Martin in his Report on Bridewell Hospital, 32nd Rep. of Charity Commission, part 6. p. 576.: from Harl. MS. 1323. He was kind enough to point it out to me; but Mr. Spedding had already made a copy of the MS., not being aware of its having been already printed.

There is another copy in the Cambridge Library, which is anonymous; and I am not aware of any circumstances otherwise tending to authenticate it. It appears however to be a legal opinion, to which a name must from the first have been attached, and I see no intrinsic reason for doubting its being Bacon's, of a time when he was a young man.

It speaks of “Her Majesty that now is,” and was therefore written in Elizabeth's time, and a reference to Mr. Martin's Report will lead us to fix the date without much hesitation as of some time before Oct. 11th 1587. An order of Common Council, now at Guildhall, dated Augst. 4th 1579, professed to give the Governor of the Hospital very arbitrary powers over the rogues and vagabonds of London. A modified copy of this order, in print, is at Bridewell, bearing date Octr. 11th 1587. Mr. Martin thinks the date may be a mistake ; and as he does not set out the differences between the two, I can form no opinion whether this is really a new order: but on this same day another order was made with the preface, " This day certain orders and ordinances lately devised by the committees who were appointed to devise means for the banishment of rogues &c., were here in open court read, and by the same ratified and confirmed ;” and the ordinances which follow are of a much less stringent character. Nothing seems more probable than that the question had been in the meantime discussed,


whether it was quite safe to rely on the charter, and to ground on it such very strong measures as were at first contemplated.

If the paper be really Bacon's, it appears to me to be very interesting, as it ascertains in the most authentic way the congtitutional opinions with which he entered into life. In particular, it is curious to see the jurisdiction of the Welsh Council rested on a purely parliamentary basis. I see no sufficient reason for thinking he ever altered this opinion, though he was of counsel to those who maintained the contrary one.'

See Preface to the Argument for the Council of the Marches.






INTER magnalia regni, amongst the greatest and most haughty things of this kingdom, as it is affirmed in the 19th year of Henry the 6th, 63,” la ley est la plus haute enheritance que le Roy ad, &c. that is, the Law is the most highest inheritance that the King hath; for by the law both the King and all his subjects are ruled and directed, &c.

The maxims and rules by which the King is directed are the ancient Maxims, Customs, and Statutes, of this land.

The Maxims are the foundations of the Law, and the full and perfect conclusions of reason.

The Customs of the Realm are properly such things as through much, often, and long usage either of simplicity or of ignorance getting once an entry, are entered and hardened by succession, and after be defended as firm and stable laws.

The Statutes of the realm are the resolute decrees and absolute judgments of the Parliament, established by the King with the common consent of three Estates, who do represent the whole and entire body of the realm of England.

To the purpose of this discourse the law is, if any Charter be granted by a King the which is repugnant to the Maxims,

| The Cambridge MS, has merely “ A Discourse upon the Commission of Bridewell." I do not suppose either title is the original one.

? The page of the Year Book is never given throughout the MS. When I have succeeded in lighting upon it, I have added it to the text.

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