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To proceed to the articles affirmative. The first was,
That the true greatness of an estate consisteth in the natural

and fit situation of the region or place.

Wherein I mean nothing superstitiously touching the fortunes or fatal destiny of any places, nor philosophically touching their configuration with the superior globe. But I understand pro

I prieties and respects merely civil, and according to the nature of human actions, and the true considerations of estate. Out of which duly weighed, there doth arise a triple distribution of the fitness of a region for a great monarchy. First, that it be of hard access. Secondly, that it be seated in no extreme angle, but commodiously in the midst of many regions. And thirdly, that it be maritime, or at the least upon great navigable rivers; and be not inland or mediterrane. And that these are not conceits, but notes of event, it appeareth manifestly, that all great monarchies and states have been seated in such manner, as, if you would place them again, observing these three points which I have mentioned, you cannot place them better; which shews the pre-eminence of nature, unto which human industry or accident cannot be equal, specially in any continuance of time. Nay, if a man look into these things more attentively, he shall see divers of these seats of monarchies, how fortune hath hovered still about the places, coming and going only in regard of the fixed reason of the conveniency of the place, which is immutable. And therefore first we see the excellent situation of Egypt, which seemeth to have been the most ancient monarchy, how conveniently it stands upon a neck of land commanding both seas on either side, and embracing, as it were with two arms, Asia and Afric, besides the benefit of the famous river of Nilus. And therefore we see what hath been the fortune of that country, there having been two mighty returns of fortune, though at great distance of time; the one in the times of Sesostris, and the other in the empire of the Mamalukes, besides the middle greatness of the kingdom of the Ptolomies, and of the greatness of the Caliphs and Sultans in the latter times. And this region, we see like


Bacon's own hand, “ Compositions." The rest is in the hand of the first transcriber, though not so fairly written. It bears no traces of correction or revision ; nor are there any marks to show whether all that was done is there. It will be observed that the last two of the negative articles are not touched on. But any number of sheets may have dropped out here without detection.

wise, is of strait and defensible access, being commonly called of the Romans, Claustra Ægypti. Consider in like manner the situation of Babylon, being planted most strongly in regard of lakes and overflowing grounds between the two great navigable rivers of Euphrates and Tigris, and in the very heart of the world, having regard to the four cardines of east and west and northern and southern regions. And therefore we see that although the sovereignty alter, yet the seat still of the monarchy remains in that place. For after the monarchies of the kings of Assyria, which were natural kings of that place?, yet when the foreign kings of Persia came in, the seat remained. For although the mansion of the persons of the kings of Persia were sometimes at Susa, and sometimes at Ecbatana, which were termed their winter and their summer parlours, because of the mildness of the air in the one, and the freshness in the other; yet the city of estate continued to be Babylon. Therefore we see that Alexander the Great, according to the advice of Calanus the Indian, that shewed him a bladder, which if it were borne down at one end would rise at the other, and therefore wished him to keep himself in the middle of his empire, chose accordingly Babylon for his seat, and died there. And afterwards likewise in the family of Seleucus and his descendents, Kings of the East, although divers of them, for their own glory, were founders of cities of their own names, as Antiochia, Seleucia, and divers others, (which they sought by all means to raise and adorn,) yet the greatness still remained according unto nature with the ancient seat. Nay, further on, the same remained during the greatness of the kings of Parthia, as appeareth by the verse of Lucan, who wrote in Nero's time.

Cumque superba staret Babylon spolianda trophaeis. And after that again, it obtained the seat of the highest Caliph or successors of Mahomet. And at this day, that which they call Bagdat, which joins to the ruins of the other, continueth one of the greatest satrapies of the Levant. So again Persia, being a country imbarred with mountains, open to the sea, and in the middle of the world, we see hath had three memorable revolutions of great monarchies. The first in the time of


Opposite this sentence is written in the margin in the transcriber's hand, "Md. to add the reasons of the three properties.”

? So MS, I suspect that some words have dropped out here.

Cyrus; the second in the time of the new Artaxerxes, who raised himself in the reign of Alexander Severus, Emperor of Rome; and now of late memory, in Ismael the Sophy, whose descendents continue in empire and competition with the Turks to this day.

So again Constantinople, being one of the most excellentest seats of the world, in the confines of Europe and Asia.

" Here the MS. stops again, at the bottom of the page ; but without any mark of ending. The other side of the leaf is indeed left blank ; but the rest of the original draught, if there was more, may have been in the hands of another transcriber,




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