Billeder på siden

And of pleasure,

Grata sub imo
Gaudia corde premens, vultu simulante pudorem.
(Her face said “fie for shame;" but inly blest,

She nursed the secret pleasure in her breast.]
The fallax of this colour is somewhat subtile, though the
answer to the example be ready; for virtue is not chosen propter
auram popularem ; but contrariwise, maxime omnium teipsum
reverere, [a man should above all reverence himself]: so as a
virtuous man will be virtuous in solitudine, and not only in the-
atro, though percase it will be more strong by glory and fame,
as an heat which is doubled by reflexion. But that denieth
the supposition, it doth not reprehend the fallax, whereof the
reprehension is : Allow that virtue (such as is joined with
labour and conflict) would not be chosen but for fame and
opinion, yet it followeth not that the chief motive of the elec-
tion should not be real and for it self; for fame may be only
causa impulsiva, and not causa constituens or efficiens. As if
there were two horses, and the one would do better without
the spur than the other: but again, the other with the spur
would far exceed the doing of the former, giving him the spur
also; yet the latter will be judged to be the better horse. And
the form as to say, Tush, the life of this horse is but in the spur,
will not serve as to a wise judgment: for since the ordinary
instrument of horsemanship is the spur, and that it is no manner
of impediment nor burden, the horse is not to be accounted
the less of which will not do well without the spur, but rather
the other is to be reckoned a delicacy than a virtue : so glory
and honour are as spurs to virtue: and although virtue would
languish without them, yet since they be always at hand to
attend virtue, virtue is not to be said the less chosen for itself
because it needeth the spur of fame and reputation : and there-
fore that position, nota ejus rei quod propter opinionem et non
propter veritatem eligitur, hæc est, quod quis si clam putaret
fore facturus non esset, is reprehended.


[ocr errors][ocr errors]

Quod rem integram servat bonum, quod sine receptu est malum.

Nam se recipere non posse impotentiæ genus est, potentia autem
bonum. [That course which keeps the matter in a man's
power is good; that which leaves him without retreat is

frog green


bad: for to have no means of retreating is to be in a sort powerless; and power is a good thing.]

Hereof Æsop framed the fable of the two frogs, that consulted together in the time of drought, (when many plashes that they had repaired to were dry,) what was to be done; and the one propounded to go down into a deep well, because it was like the water would not fail there; but the other answered, yea but if it do fail, how shall we get up again? And the reason is, that human actions are so uncertain and subject to perils, as that seemeth the best course which hath most passages out of it.

Appertaining to this persuasion, the forms are, you shall engage yourself; on the other side, tantum quantum voles sumes er fortuna, &c. you shall keep the matter in your own hands. The reprehension of it is, that proceeding and resolving in all actions is necessary: for as he saith well, not to resolve is to resolve ; and many times it breeds as many necessities, and engageth as far in some other sort, as to resolve.

So it is but the covetous man's disease translated into power; for the covetous man will enjoy nothing, because he will have his full store and possibility to enjoy the more; so by this reason a man should execute nothing, because he should be still indifferent and at liberty to execute anything. Besides necessity and this same jacta est alea hath many times an advantage, because it awaketh the powers of the mind, and strengtheneth endeavour. Cæteris pares necessitate certe superiores estis : [Being equal otherwise, in necessity you have the better.]

V. Quod ex pluribus constat et divisibilius, est majus quam quod ex paucioribus et magis unum : nam omnia per partes considerata majora videntur; quare et pluralitas partium magnitudinem præ se fert: fortius autem operatur pluralitas partium si ordo absit, nam inducit similitudinem infiniti, et impedit comprehensionem. [That which consists of more things and is more divisible, is greater than that which consists of fewer and is more of one piece: for all things seem greater when they are considered part by part; and therefore plurality of parts carries a show of magnitude. Also plurality of parts has the greater effect when there is no order in them; for the want of order gives it a resemblance to infinity and prevents com

prehension.] VOL. VII.


ich nan

This colour seemeth palpable for it is not plurality of parts without majority of parts that maketh the total greater; yet nevertheless it often carries the mind away ; yea it deceiveth the sense; as it seemeth to the eye a shorter distance of way if it be all dead and continued, than if it have trees or buildings or any other marks whereby the eye may divide it. So when a great monied man hath divided his chests and coins and bags, he seemeth to himself richer than he was, and therefore a way to amplify anything is to break it and to make an anatomy of it in several parts, and to examine it according to several circumstances. And this maketh the greater shew if it be done without order; for confusion maketh things muster more; and besides, what is set down by order and division, doth demonstrate that nothing is left out or omitted, but all is there; whereas if it be without order, both the mind comprehendeth less that which is set down, and besides it leaveth a suspicion, as if more might be said than is expressed.


This colour deceiveth, if the mind of him that is to be persuaded do of itself over-conceive or prejudge of the greatness of anything; for then the breaking of it will make it seem less, because it maketh it to appear more according to the truth: and therefore if a man be in sickness or pain, the time will seem longer without a clock or hour-glass, than with it; for the mind doth value every moment, and then the hour doth rather sum up the moments than divide the day. So in a dead plain the way seemeth the longer, because the eye hath preconceived it shorter than the truth, and the frustrating of that maketh it seem longer than the truth. Therefore if any man have an over-great opinion of anything, then if another think by breaking it into several considerations he shall make it seem greater to him, he will be deceived; and therefore in such cases it is not safe to divide, but to extol the entire still in general.

Another case wherein this colour deceiveth is when the matter broken or divided is not comprehended by the sense or mind at once, in respect of the distracting or scattering of it; and being entire and not divided, is comprehended : as a hundred pounds in heaps of five pounds will shew more than in one gross heap, so as the heaps be all upon one table to be seen at once, otherwise not; or flowers growing scattered in divers

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]

beds will shew more than if they did grow in one bed, so as all those beds be within a plot, that they be object to view at once, otherwise not; and therefore men whose living lieth together in one shire, are commonly counted greater landed than those whose livings are dispersed, though it be more, because of the notice and comprehension.

A third case wherein this colour deceiveth, and it is not so properly a case or reprehension as it is a counter colour, being in effect as large as the colour itself, and that is, omnis compositio indigentiæ cujusdam videtur esse particeps [all composition implies some neediness]: because if one thing would serve the turn it were ever best, but the defect and imperfections of things hath brought in that help to piece them up; as it is said, Martha, Martha, attendis ad plurima, unum sufficit. [Martha, thou art busied about many things: one thing sufficeth.] So likewise hereupon Æsop framed the fable of the fox and the cat; whereas the fox bragged what a number of shifts and devices he had to get from the hounds, and the cat said she had but one, which was to climb a tree, which in proof was better worth than all the rest; whereof the proverb grew, Multa novit vulpes, sed felis unum magnum. And in the moral of this fable it comes likewise to pass, that a good sure friend is a better help at a pinch than all the stratagems and policies of a man's own wit. So it falleth out to be a common error in negociating, whereas men have many reasons to induce or persuade, they strive commonly to utter and use them all at once, which weakeneth them. For it argueth, as was said, a neediness in every of the reasons by itself, as if one did not trust to any of them, but fled from one to another, helping himself only with that, Et quæ non prosunt singula, multa juvant : [One will not help, but many will.] Indeed in a set speech in an assembly it is expected a man should use all his reasons in the case he handleth, but in private persuasions it is always a great error.

A fourth case wherein this colour may be reprehended, is in respect of that same vis unita fortior ; according to the tale of the French King, that when the Emperor's ambassador had recited his master's stile at large, which consisteth of many countries and dominions, the French King willed his Chancellor or other minister to repeat and say over France as many times as the other had recited the several doninions; intending it was equivalent with them all, and besides more compacted and united.

There is also appertaining to this colour another point, why breaking of a thing doth help it, not by way of adding a shew of magnitude unto it, but a note of excellency and rarity; whereof the forms are, Where shall you find such a concurrence ? Great but not complete; for it seems a less work of nature or fortune to make anything in his kind greater than ordinary, than to make a strange composition.

Yet if it be narrowly considered, this colour will be reprehended or encountered by imputing to all excellencies in compositions a kind of poverty, or at least a casualty or jeopardy; for from that which is excellent in greatness, somewhat may be taken, or there may be decay, and yet sufficiency left; but from that which hath his price in composition, if you take away anything, or any part do fail, all is disgraced.

VI. Cujus privatio bona, malum ; cujus privatio mala, bonum.

[That which it is good to be rid of is evil; that which it is evil to be rid of is good.]

The forms to make it conceived, that that was evil which is changed for the better, are, He that is in hell thinks there is no other heaven.

Satis quercus ; Acorns were good till bread was found, &c. And of the other side, the forms to make it conceived that that was good which was changed for the worse, are, Bona magis carendo quam fruendo sentimus : [it is by missing a good thing that we become sensible of it:] Bona a tergo formosissima: Good things never appear in their full beauty, till they turn their back and be going away, &c.

The reprehension of this colour is, that the good or evil which is removed, may be esteemed good or evil comparatively, and not positively or simply. So that if the privation be good, it follows not the former condition was evil, but less good : for the flower or blossom is a positive good, although the remove of it to give place to the fruit be a comparative good. So in the tale of Æsop, when the old fainting man in the heat of the day cast down his burthen and called for death, and when death came to know his will with him, said it was for nothing but to help him up with his burthen again: it doth not follow that

« ForrigeFortsæt »