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THIS fragment might perhaps have been placed more properly in the third volume, among the philosophical works. The subject of it is touched, though very briefly, in the fourth chapter of the sixth book of the De Augmentis, under the head of Ars Pædagogica; which, had it been completed, would apparently have been its proper place. And considering that Bacon had taken the subject so far into consideration, found that there was much to be said about it, and proceeded so short a way with it himself, it is rather strange to me that he did not set down these Georgica Intellectus in his catalogue of Desiderata. It forms no part however of his Philosophy properly so called; and may take its place here among the Civilia et Moralia without any impropriety; what there is of it being very welcome, and only making one wish that there

were more.

It was first printed by Dr. Rawley in the Resuscitatio (1657); and appears to have been written some time between 1596 and 1604: not before 1596, because it was in that year that Savill became Provost of Eton; not later than 1604, because in the two most authentic manuscripts which I have met with the letter begins "Mr. Savill;" and it was in 1604 that he became Sir Henry. One of these manuscripts is in a collection of Bacon's letters transcribed in the hand of one of his servants, and bearing in one page traces of his own. I take it to be a copy of the "Register of letters" which he speaks of in his will, and from which Rawley professes to have taken the collection in the Resuscitatio. At any rate it is a good manuscript, and of good authority: as I can myself testify, having had occasion to compare a great number of the letters with the

original draughts and corrected copies (now in the Lambeth Library) from which the transcript was no doubt made. This volume is now in the British Museum (Additional MSS. 5503.); and contains a copy of the "Letter to Mr. Savill" which accompanied the "Discourse," though not the Discourse itself.

The other manuscript (Additional MSS. 629. fo. 274.) is in a hand of the time, and probably belonged to Dr. Rawley; and though not a perfectly accurate transcript originally, it has been corrected from a better copy, I think by Tenison. It contains both the Letter and the Discourse; for which last I take it to be the best authority now extant.





COMING back from your invitation at Eton, where I had refreshed myself with company which I loved, I fell into a consideration of that part of policy, whereof philosophy speaketh too much and laws too little; and that is of Education of youth. Whereupon fixing my mind a while, I found straightways and noted, even in the discourses of philosophers, which are so large in this argument, a strange silence concerning one principal part of that subject. For as touching the framing and seasoning of youth to moral virtues, tolerance of labours, continency from pleasures, obedience, honour, and the like, they handle it; but touching the improvement and helping of the intellectual powers, as of conceit, memory, and judgment, they say nothing. Whether it were that they thought it to be a matter wherein nature only prevailed; or that they intended it as referred to the several and proper arts which teach the use of reason and speech. But for the former of these two reasons, howsoever it pleaseth them to distinguish of habits and powers, the experience is manifest enough that the motions and faculties of the wit and memory may be not only governed and guided, but also confirmed and enlarged, by custom and exercise duly applied: As if a man exercise shooting, he shall not only shoot nearer the mark but also draw a stronger bow. And as for the latter,

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of comprehending these precepts within the arts of logic and rhetoric, if it be rightly considered, their office is distinct altogether from this point. For it is no part of the doctrine of the use or handling of an instrument to teach how to whet or grind the instrument to give it a sharp edge, or how to quench it or otherwise, whereby to give it a stronger temper. Wherefore finding this part of knowledge not broken, I have but tanquam aliud agens entered into it, and salute you with it, dedicating it after the ancient manner, first as to a dear friend, and then as to an apt person, for as much as you have both place to practise it, and judgment and leisure to look deeper into it than I have done. Herein you must call to mind 'Apcσtov μèv üdwp. Though the argument be not of great heighth and dignity, nevertheless it is of great and universal use. And yet I do not see why (to consider it rightly) that should not be a learning of height, which teacheth to raise the highest and worthiest part of the mind. But howsoever that be, if the world take any light and use by this writing, I will that the gratulation be, to the good friendship and acquaintance between us two. And so I commend you to God's divine protection.



I DID ever hold it for an insolent and unlucky saying, Faber quisque suæ fortunæ, except it be uttered only as a hortative or spur to correct sloth. For otherwise, if it be believed as it soundeth, and that a man entereth into a high imagination that he can compass and fathom all accidents, and ascribeth all successes to his drifts and reaches and the contrary to his errors and sleepings, it is commonly seen that the evening fortune of that man is not so prosperous, as of him that without slackening of his industry attributeth much to felicity and providence above him. But if the sentence were turned to this, Faber quisque ingenii sui, it were somewhat moretrue and muchmore profitable; because it would teach men to bend themselves to reform those imperfections in themselves, which now they seek but to cover; and to attain those virtues and good parts, which

This title is inserted here in the Resuscitatio. It is not in the Manuscript.

now they seek but to have only in shew and demonstration. Yet notwithstanding every man attempteth to be of the first trade of carpenters, and few bind themselves to the second: whereas nevertheless the rising in fortune seldom amendeth the mind; but on the other side the removing of the stonds and impediments of the mind doth often clear the passage and current of a man's fortune. But certain it is, whether it be believed or no, that as the most excellent of metals, gold, is of all other the most pliant and most enduring to be wrought; so of all living and breathing substances, the perfectest (Man) is the most susceptible of help, improvement, impression, and alteration. And not only in his body, but in his mind and spirit. And there again not only in his appetite and affection, but in his power of wit and reason.

For as to the body of man, we find many and strange experiences how nature is overwrought by custom, even in actions that seem of most difficulty and least possible. As first in Voluntary Motion; which though it be termed voluntary, yet the highest degrees of it are not voluntary; for it is in my power and will to run; but to run faster than according to my lightness or disposition of body, is not in my power nor will. We see the industry and practice of tumblers and funambulos, what effects of great wonder it bringeth the body of man unto. So for suffering of pain and dolour, which is thought so contrary to the nature of man, there is much example of penances in strict orders of superstition, what they do endure; such as may well verify the report of the Spartan boys, which were wont to be scourged upon the altar so bitterly as sometimes they died of it, and yet were never heard complain. And to pass to those faculties which are reckoned to be more involuntary, as long fasting and abstinence, and the contrary extreme (voracity); the leaving and forbearing the use of drink for altogether; the enduring vehement cold; and the like; there have not wanted, neither do want, divers examples of strange victories over the body in every of these. Nay in respiration, the proof hath been of some, who by continual use of diving and working under the water have brought themselves to be able to hold their breath an incredible time. And others that have been able without suffocation to endure the stifling breath of an oven or furnace so heated, as, though it did not scald nor burn, yet it was many degrees too hot for any man,

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