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nies, had in many cases founded grammar schools before the close of the century. Moreover, the legislatures of Massachusetts (1647) and Connecticut (1650) soon ordered that a 'grammar' school be established in every town having one hundred families. The American grammar schools, like their prototypes, were secondary and sustained no real relation to the elementary schools. They were mostly intended to fit pupils for college, although sometimes the college had not yet been established, and thus to furnish a preliminary step to preparation for the Christian ministry. Hence their course consisted chiefly in reading the classics and the New Testament, and used among its texts Lily's Grammar and the Colloquies of Corderius. And while the hold of formal humanism upon secondary education was somewhat relaxed during the subsequent stages of the 'academy' and the 'high school,' the formal classical training was considered the only means of a liberal education until well into the nineteenth century.

The Aim and Institutions of Humanistic Education.— It can now be seen how far the ideals of humanism had departed from those of the medieval period. The 'otherworldly' aim, the monastic isolation, and the scholastic discussions had given way to the interests of this life, Interests of personal and social development, and a study of the classics. In the North the movement took on rather a different color from what it did in the peninsula that gave it birth. While Northern humanism was narrower in not concerning itself so much with self-culture, personal expression, and the various opportunities of life, it had a wider vision through interesting itself in society as a whole and in endeavoring to advance morality and

More social and moral in

the North, and more individual in Italy.

Organization,

content,

methods,

and effect.

religion. It was democratic and social in its trend, where Italian humanism was more aristocratic and individual.

In Italy the chief educational institutions resulting from the humanistic movement were the schools that arose at the brilliant courts of the city tyrants. These institutions were sometimes connected with the universities, and gradually the universities themselves were forced to admit the new learning to the curriculum. In the North a number of new institutions-Hieronymian schools, princes' schools, gymnasiums, and grammar schools were developed from humanism, and the existing institutions soon showed the influence of the movement, but all of them stressed moral and religious studies, as well as classical. Everywhere the curriculum of the humanistic foundations consisted mostly in the mastery of Latin and Greek, but in the North the renewal of Greek meant also a study of the New and Old Testaments and the Church Fathers. Where the Italian Renaissance re-created the liberal education of Plato and Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian, the movement in its Northern spread found in the classical revival a means of moral and religious training. But just as humanism in Italy by the beginning of the sixteenth century had degenerated into mere Ciceronianism, so the humanistic education in the North, after about a century of development, began to grow narrow, hard, and fixed. By the middle of the sixteenth century the spirit of criticism, investigation, and intellectual activity had begun to abate, and by the opening of the seventeenth humanism had been completely formalized. In the study of the classics all emphasis was placed upon grammar, linguistics, and style; form was preferred to content; and

methods became memoriter and imitative. Humanism had largely performed its mission, and a new awakening was needed to revivify education and society in general.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

Graves, During the Transition (Macmillan, 1910), chaps. XIIXIV; Monroe, Text-book (Macmillan, 1905), chap. VI. An interesting interpretation of the Renaissance both in Italy and the North is found in Adams, G. B., Civilization during the Middle Ages (Scribner, 1894), chap. XV. An account of the movement, including its educational aspects in Italy, is found in Burckhardt, J., Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (Sonnenschein, London, 1892; Macmillan), vol. I, especially part III; Symonds, J. A., Renaissance in Italy (Holt, Scribner), vol. II, especially chaps. III-VIII; or Symonds' Short History of the Renaissance (Holt, 1894), especially chaps. I and VII, and IX-XI. Woodward, W. H., gives us a vivid account of the educational work of Vittorino da Feltre and Other Humanist Educators (Cambridge University Press, 1897), and of Erasmus concerning Education (Cambridge University Press, 1904), and of Education during the Renaissance (Cambridge University Press, 1906) as a whole. Peter Ramus and the Educational Reformation of the Sixteenth Century (Macmillan, 1912), by Graves, F. P., furnishes some idea of conditions in France. The Italian Renaissance in England (Columbia University Press, 1905), especially chap. I, is succinctly described by Einstein, L.; and an account of Colet and St. Paul's School can be found in Barnard, H., English Pedagogy, second series, pp. 49-117.

CHAPTER XIII

EDUCATIONAL INFLUENCES OF THE REFORMATION

OUTLINE

Luther's educational positions are most fully revealed in his well-known Letter and Sermon. He holds that education should prepare for citizenship, and should be state-supported, and these recommendations were somewhat embodied in actual schools by his associates.

Zwingli was killed before he could greatly influence education, but the educational institutions of Calvin spread rapidly through Switzerland, France, Netherlands, Puritan England, and Scotland.

In England Henry VIII and Edward VI confiscated the property of some three hundred monastic and other ecclesiastical schools, but subsequently many of these were refounded.

The Jesuit colleges were organized to extend Catholic Christianity. The lower colleges were humanistic, and the higher taught 'philosophy' and theology. The teachers were trained, and the methods, though memoriter and emulative, were effective. The influence of the Jesuit colleges was phenomenal, but they have failed to meet new conditions.

The Port Royalists held that reason was more important than memory, but, while their 'little schools' stressed vernacular, logic, and geometry, they offered nothing beyond the best elements in the education of the past.

Elementary and industrial education was given an impulse for the Catholics by the schools of the Christian Brothers. They also opened training schools for teachers, and perfected the 'simultaneous' method.

Among the Protestants and some Catholics in Germany, Holland, Scotland, and certain of the American colonies, the Ref

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