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formers, falls distinctly within the period of the nineteenth century.


Graves, In Modern Times (Macmillan, 1913), chap. VII; Great Educators (Macmillan, 1912), chaps. X and XI; Monroe, Textbook (Macmillan, 1905), pp. 622-673; Parker, Modern Elementary Education (Ginn, 1912), chaps. XVII and XVIII. Herbart's Science of Education (translated by Felkin), and Outlines of Educational Doctrine (translated by Lange and De Garmo, Macmillan, 1909), and Froebel's Education of Man (translated by Hailmann; Appleton, 1894), Pedagogics of the Kindergarten and Education by Development (translated by Jarvis; Appleton, 1897 and 1899), and Mother Play (translated by Eliot and Blow, Appleton, 1896), should be read at least cursorily. The best brief treatise on Herbart and Herbartianism (Scribner, 1896) is that by De Garmo, C., a graphic description of The Herbartian Psychology (Heath, 1898) is given by Adams, J., in chap. III, and a history of The Doctrines of Herbart in the United States as a doctoral dissertation (University of Pennsylvania) by Randels, G. B. A good account of Froebel and Education by Self-Activity (Scribner, 1897) has been furnished by Bowen, H. C.; a conservative treatment of Kindergarten Education (Education in the United States, edited by N. M. Butler, Monograph No. 1), by Blow, Susan E.; an interesting treatise on Kindergarten in American Education (Macmillan, 1908), by Vandewalker, Nina C.; and a critical account of The Psychology of the Kindergarten (Teachers College Record, vol. IV, pp. 377-408), by Thorndike, E. L.




The leading states of Western Europe and of Canada have, during the past century and a half, organized systems of education, which may prove suggestive.

In Prussia, owing to a strong line of monarchs, state control has taken the place of ecclesiastical through a series of decrees and enactments. The people's schools are quite separate from the secondary schools. Three types of secondary institutions have developed, the 'gymnasium,' with the classics as staples; the 'real-school,' with modern languages and sciences; and the 'realgymnasium,' with its compromise between the other two. The universities have likewise been emancipated from ecclesiastical control.

In France, a highly centralized system has been developed. Napoleon united secondary and higher education in a single corporation; under Louis Philippe, an organization of elementary schools was made; and, during the third republic, elementary education has been made free, compulsory, and secular. The present secondary system-lycées and communal colleges-began with Napoleon, and has now been differentiated into several courses. One-half of the universities established by Napoleon were suppressed during the Restoration, but since 1896 there has been a university in each of the sixteen 'academies,' save one.

In England national education has grown out of the conflict of a number of social elements. The sentiment for universal training appeared toward the close of the eighteenth century, but not until 1870 were 'board schools' established. In 1899 a central Board of Education was created; and the Act of 1902, while per

mitting voluntary schools to share in the local rates, unified the system and established secondary education at public expense. During the nineteenth century also the classical and ecclesiastical monopoly in secondary and higher education was largely broken.

In Canada there have developed two types of educational control,―(1) the closely centralized system of public schools in Ontario, and (2) the public supervision of ecclesiastical schools in Quebec.


National Systems of Education in Europe and Canada. In previous chapters (XVII, XXI, XXIII) we have witnessed the gradual evolution in America of state systems of universal education out of the unorganized and rather aristocratic arrangement of schools that had first been transplanted from Europe in the seventeenth century. But development of a centralized organization of public schools has not been confined to the United States. During the past century and a half, the leading powers of Western Europe and Canada have likewise organized state systems of education, similar in some respects to those of the American union. All of these states education free, have now established universal elementary education free but few cases of gratuitous to all, although as yet in few instances are secondary secondary schools, and schools also gratuitous, and only Canada has welded her France alone elementary and secondary systems. France alone has completely secularized its system, but the public schools of the other nations, while still including religious instruction, have been emancipated from ecclesiastical control, and are responsible to the civil authorities. In all of them school attendance is compulsory. compulsory. Yet the educational system in none of these countries is identical with that in the United States, but has been adapted in each case to the genius and social organization of the


people concerned. Its characteristics must, therefore, be considerably modified, in order to be utilized or to prove suggestive to the United States or other nations, and can be understood only in the light of the educational history of the particular country to which it bewhen under longs. For an intelligent appreciation of these modern


stood historically.

school systems, we must, therefore, trace the gradual development to their present form in response to the changing ideals of successive periods.

The Beginning of State Control in Prussia.-We may look first at Germany. Up to the later years of the eighteenth century all stages of education in the various German states remained almost entirely under ecclesiastical control, but during this period the schools and universities were taken over by the state from the church, although the clergy still exercised a few prerogatives, and centralized national systems were gradually organized. Among these states of Germany the first and most influential in the organization of universal education was Prussia. While each of the others is characterized by an educational history and peculiarities of its own, this state may be taken as an illustration of the evolution of German school systems. The rise of Prussia, due to enlight- educationally as well as politically, seems to have been ened despots:

Rise of Prussian education

due to the strong Hohenzollern monarchs, despotic, but thoroughly awake to the interests of their people. Although for nearly two centuries state control of education was carried on more or less through the medium of the church, its development was well under way by the seventeenth century. While the 'consistory,' or board of supervision, was still composed largely of the clergy, the schools were soon (1687) declared not to be


simply church organizations, but to belong to the state, and some attempt was made to extend schools to the villages as well as cities. But the first noteworthy attempt to establish compulsory attendance occurred during the reign of Frederick William I. In 1717 that monarch decreed that, wherever schools existed, children (1) Decree for should be required to attend during the winter, and in attendance by the summer whenever they could be spared by their liam I in 1717; parents, which must be at least once a week. He also founded the first teachers' seminary at Stettin from his own private means (1735), and the next year had a definite law passed, making education compulsory for children from six to twelve years of age.

Frederick Wil

Educational Achievements of Frederick the Great.His most important contribution, however, consisted in preparing the way for an educational movement that was to be greatly developed through his more able son, Frederick the Great. Frederick began by improving the administration of secondary education, and requiring that all vacancies on crown lands be filled by graduates from Hecker's normal school at Berlin. But the great step toward a national system was taken in 1763, when Frederick issued his General School Regulations for (2) General School Regulathe Country. This decree required children to attend tions decreed by Frederick school from five until thirteen or fourteen, and until in 1763, they "know not only what is necessary of Christianity, fluent reading, and writing, but can give answer in everything which they learn from the school books prescribed and approved by our consistory." If any pupils should arrive at this state of proficiency before thirteen or fourteen, they could even then leave school only through the official certification of the teacher, minister, and

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