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Courage, but cruelty;
self-respect, but pride;
and contradictions, and every virtue seems to have been balanced by a correlative vice. The knights were recklessly courageous in battle, but their anger was ungovernable and their cruelty extreme. A great self-respect was supposed to characterize the true knight, but this often reacted into an overweening pride. Likewise, while the knights were rated largely according to their liberality liberality, but and hospitality, these virtues degenerated into a great love of display and extravagance beyond measure. Again, although great respect for womanhood was inculcated, not much consideration could be expected by the woman beneath a certain rank. Similarly, the knightly word of honor, if accompanied by certain forms, would be held sacred, but should these forms be omitted, a decided breach of faith was not uncommon. As a whole, however, the chivalric training had a beneficial effect upon the society of the times. It helped to organize the turmoil and to refine the barbarism of mediæval Europe, and was an effective instrument in raising the position of women. Moreover, while this peculiar of otherworld- training was artificial and worldly, by that very tendency it did much to counteract the 'otherworldly' ideal of monasticism and the general asceticism of the period. It encouraged an activity in earthly affairs and a frank enjoyment of this life, and thus helped to develop a striking characteristic of the Renaissance.
Graves, During the Transition (Macmillan, 1910), chap. VII; Monroe, Text-book (Macmillan, 1905), pp. 284-291. Detailed descriptions of the stages of chivalric training can be found in
The Education of Chivalry:
Figs. 12 and 13.-Preliminaries and termination of a combat. Fig. 14.-Boys playing tournament with a 'quintain,' or dummy
(Reproduced from Strutt, Sports and Pastimes of England.)
Cornish, F. W., Chivalry (Sonnenschein, London, 1901) (Macmillan, 1908); Furnival, F. J., Early Education in England (Forewords to The Babees Book, Early English Text Society, Original Series, vol. 32); and Mills, C., The History of Chivalry (Lea and Blanchard, Philadelphia, 1844), vol. I, chaps. I-V, and vol. II, chap. VII. An ingenious, but uncritical reconstruction of the life of a knight in story form, is found in Gautier, L., Chivalry, chaps. V-XX.
THE BURGHER, GILD, AND CHANTRY SCHOOLS
Impulse caused by Crusades and desire for luxuries.
In the later Middle Ages the commerce of Europe was greatly increased. Soon the towns received a large impulse from serfs that flocked into them, and before long an influential 'burgher class' arose.
There also sprang up merchant and craft gilds, which afforded an industrial training through apprenticeship, and a more formal education through 'gild schools.' As the gilds merged with the town, these institutions became 'burgher schools,' and afforded a practical education in reading, writing, and reckoning. Various 'adventure,' 'chantry,' and other schools were also absorbed by the burgher schools.
Thus these institutions came to represent the educational interests of the industrial classes, and paved the way for the civic control of education.
The Rise of Commerce and Industry.-A most important influence in producing a transition from the mediæval to modern times is found in the increase of commerce during the later Middle Ages. From the Roman days down, trade had never died out in Western Europe, especially Italy, despite the injuries wrought by barbarian invasions, as the nobles had always need of luxuries, and the Church of articles of utility in its services. But the demand for vessels and transports during the Crusades, and the desire for the precious