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may be ladled out and poured from one vessel into another as if it were a liquid.

The water when drunk is highly exhilarating, and by no means unpleasant to the palate, the slight well-known iron taste being overpowered by the agreeable sharpness of the acid, and by the refreshing coldness of the draught, the natural temperature of the spring being 437 cent. or only 8 Fahrenheit above freezing. Indeed, after a little time, most patients look forward to their invigorating potion with pleasure rather than otherwise, and are reluctant to give it up when the time arrives for their departure.

To obtain the full benefit of the waters, it is customary to go through a three to five weeks' course of drinking and bathing, which is called die Kur,' the cure. The name attaches to everything belonging to the place or process; thus the establishment is called the Kurhaus;' the grounds the Kuranlagen; the patients the 'Kurgaste,' the band the 'Kurmusik,' and so on.

The drinking part of the cure is the most important as regards the iron. From three to six glasses of the mineral water are drunk per day; the necessary conditions being that it be taken on an empty stomach, and that the drinking be accompanied by exercise. The first thing in the morning is the best time, but many patients drink also a little before noon. A small quantity only, usually a tumbler of six ounces, must be drunk at a time, being repeated at ten or fifteen minute intervals, with a walk between; and about an hour should elapse between the last glass and a meal. The spring generally used for drinking is the Neue Quelle,' over which is built a drinking hall. The natural level of the water is eight to twelve feet below the surface of the ground in the valley; hence, in order to avoid the necessity of placing the drinking rooms and baths below the ground level, the plan has been resorted to of pumping up the water. The spring is covered in, and a small pump is placed immediately over it which is worked by an attendant for every

drinker. Pumping water of this kind is generally objectionable, as all agitation tends to produce decomposition. It is also injudicious, I think, to conceal the spring; it would have been, much better to make a sunk area, as at Schwalbach and Pyrmont, where the drinkers could have had the satisfaction of filling their glasses directly from the source as it issues sparkling from the rock below. The drinking hall is surrounded with little pigeon holes for the glasses of the patients, each having the name attached; this is a convenient arrangement for gossip and curiosity, as by watching the persons drinking all the world can at once ascertain who they are. Every patient taking the cure has to pay ten francs fee for drinking the waters, and to enter his name in the official book of the establishment.

The bathing part of the cure is usually considered essential, and many people attach even more importance to it than to drinking; but whether iron is really absorbed by the skin is very problematical. There is no doubt, however, that the bathing practically does good, and even if the non-absorption doctrine be true, this may be explained by the known powerful effect of the carbonic acid, and by the improved action of the skin. One bath is taken daily, the water being warmed up to a temperature varying from about 23° to 27° Réaumur (or 83° to 93° Fahrenheit), and the patient remains in from a quarter to half an hour.

There are eighty bath rooms in two buildings devoted to the purpose. These rooms are constructed entirely of the firwood of the country, bare and unpainted, and with no furniture but a chair, a slab, and a looking glass, but they have a clean and pleasant appearance. [The bath vessels are simple oblong boxes of the same material, just large enough to receive the body, and they are fitted with movable covers that come up to the neck, leaving the head projecting above. This plan of covering the bath is peculiar to St. Moritz, and its precise object is difficult to understand. The bath

attendants say it is to keep the bath from cooling, but as the body is hotter than the water, the tendency is rather to become warmer.

The water used for bathing is exclusively that from the old source, and as this lies at a lower level it is necessary to raise the water about fifteen feet. It is pumped by steam power from the natural well into two large wooden reservoirs, from which it flows into the baths by its own gravity. Each bath is fitted with three pipes, one bringing common water for cleansing purposes, the second supplying cold mineral water, and the third being a steampipe in communication with boilers outside. The bath is filled cold and the water is warmed to the required temperature by a number of jets of steam issuing from small holes in a pipe at the bottom.

The impression of the bath is agreeable; the body immediately after immersion becomes covered with little bubbles of carbonic acid gas, which gradually expand and rise to the surface; and it is desirable to keep as quiet as possible, in order to promote the action of the gas on the body.

Each bath costs 1 franc, which is paid at the time. The business arrangements are very good, and the number of bath rooms being so large, a bath can always be obtained on very short notice. This is a great advantage over Schwalbach, where the difficulty of getting baths, in the height of the season, is a great nuisance, and forms a great objection to the place.

St. Moritz may be best reached from England by way of Chur in the Upper Rhine valley, to which place there is a railway. Leaving Charing Cross at 7 A.M. and travelling by way of Paris, Basle, and Zurich, the passenger may arrive at Chur at 7 PM. on the following day. From thence to St. Moritz the high ridge must be crossed between the valleys of the Rhine and the Inn, and this may be done by either of two passes, the Julier or the Albula. There are diligences in summer over both, in about twelve hours, and the road lies through very fine alpine scenery.

Arriving at St. Moritz, the visitor will probably at once make his way to the Kurhaus,' on the site of the springs, a large establishment which will accommodate about three hundred guests, and containing apartments of various classes, from simple bedrooms for patients of limited means, to suites fit for a reigning potentate. The living for the general inmates is paid for at a pension price of six francs a day, comprising three meals, all very plain. Wine and all luxuries are extra, and special or private services are charged very high, probably with the object of restricting the use of this establishment to those who really require the cure, and will conform to the usual course of living. For lodging, board, and attendance, and ordinary wine (the wines of the Val Tellina are here chiefly consumed, and are very fair in quality), the cost will be about ten shillings per day.

Instead of putting up at the Kurhaus,' which is generally overcrowded in the season, the visitor may lodge in the village, a mile away. This is, in its native state, only a miserable collection of dirty hovels, but it contains a good large hotel, kept by M. Badrutt, which will accommodate perhaps 150 people, and there are some other inns and pensions, and several very fair lodging-houses, that will receive between 300 and 400 more. In order to give his guests an opportunity of profiting by the waters, M. Badrutt runs an omnibus at short intervals during the forenoon to and from the baths, and many people who take them lodge in the village; but as far as my observation goes, the distance must interfere seriously with the systematic process of the cure. On the other hand, the village is better situated, lying nearly 300 feet higher, and commanding finer views; it is also more conveniently placed for the more important excursions. The most natural arrangement, therefore, is for those who go seriously for the benefit of the mineral waters to lodge at the Kurhaus;' and for those whose object is merely pleasure to stay at the village; and if

each of the two classes would bear this in mind, it would be to their mutual advantage. The overcrowding of the Bath Establishment with pleasure guests, and the consequent driving of the invalids a mile away from their almost hourly medicament (an evil merely arising from want of knowledge or forethought), has been very inconvenient for the last few years.

When both the baths and the village are full, as they were for some time during last season, visitors are compelled to live in other villages, as Pontresina, Silva plana, or Samaden, a few miles away. The latter is by far the best, and an omnibus runs daily from there to the baths; but it is too far off to

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Sean eternos los laureles
Que supimus conseguir, &c.

There are plenty of books and some newspapers to be had in this language, but probably few visitors will care to study it. For their consolation, however, it may be added that German and Italian are very generally spoken, and French exceptionally.

There are two Swiss medical men, one, Herr Brügger, officially attached to the baths, and who has taken great interest in their rise and progress; the other, Herr Berry, who keeps a lodging-house in the village, and attends at the baths daily.

No medical stores are to be got nearer than Samaden, where there is a small 'Apotheke.' Shops are unknown, but there are a few stalls for fancy ware and some of the more necessary articles of clothing. There is a reading-room in the 'Kurhaus,' where formerly the 'Times' was taken in; but as it

allow of the proper use of the waters.

The accommodation generally at St. Moritz is very fair for such an ont-of-the-way place. The hotelkeepers are accustomed to receive good people, and know their ways. There are post and telegraph offices at both the baths and the village; diligences run over two good roads into Italy, and one into the Tyrol, and plenty of vetturini and carriages are at hand.

The natural language of the country is Romansch, a direct derivation from the Latin, which has very curious resemblances, not only to its parent tongue, but to many other modern derivatives, as the following examples will show:


In principi era il verbo, et il verbo era tiers Dieu, et Dieu era il verbo.

Del Dieu chi nus créet, la clemenz' infinita, &c.

Clama ils abitants dellas sombriv' eternas, &c.

Sajen eternas las laureas

Cha savetteus conseguir, &c.

was found impossible to prevent our countrymen from taking it away into their own private rooms, it was given up. An English clergyman, the Rev. A. B. Strettel, has built a house in the village, and holds Divine service on Sundays; and the first stone of an English church, half way between the baths and the village, was laid during the last season by the Archbishop of York, who happened to be staying there at the time.

The season for taking the cure lasts from May to September, during which time the climate is generally pleasant, healthy, and cool, though the direct rays of the sun have often great power. As might be expected in such a situation, the weather is very changeable, and much precaution as regards clothing is necessary, particularly for those who take the baths. The springs happen to be situated just

where the river Inn enters a lake, and is gradually silting it up into marshy ground. This, in a warmer climate, would be a dangerous place, on account of the liability to malaria, but I have not observed or heard of any evil of the kind. The grounds immediately adjoining the buildings are moreover being well drained and filled in with good material.

The principal attraction of the place is its magnificent scenery. The upper valley of the Inn is one of the most picturesque in Switzerland; it is enlivened by the peculiar series of lakes formed by the river, and the lower slopes of the hills are clothed with pine forests, among which are plenty of delightful walks, affording splendid views. It is a great advantage to those taking the cure to have, near at hand, pleasant, short promenades, which they can take in the intervals of drinking, bathing, and meals, as moderate and cheerful exercise is one of the most essential elements of the curative process. The lake, too, on which boats are kept, affords other pleasant means of passing away the time.

A little farther off, but still easily accessible, we come upon the more striking alpine scenery. Above the lower slopes of the valley tower on either hand picturesque granite rocks, rising to 8,000 or 10,000 feet above the sea level, and upon which snow and ice are visible in all directions. One glacier, that of Rosatch, almost overhangs the Kurhaus,' and sends down its waters through the grounds. Drives in any direction along the excellent roads, particularly those across the passes, open out magnificent prospects; and the neighbouring peaks of Piz Languard and Piz Ot, either a few hours' easy climb, afford panoramic views of vast extent. Three or four miles distant, in an adjoining valley, lies Pontresina, the Chamouni of the Engadine, and the centre of access to the colossal snowy peaks and wonderful glaciers of the Bernina. Or if softer beauties be preferred, or if a change to a milder climate be desirable, the Lake of Como, with its lovely scenery and Italian sky,

is within a few hours' drive. Altogether it is impossible to conceive a more delightful place for an autumn sojourn.

The day passes pleasantly, and there is plenty to do. At six o'clock in the morning the great bell of the Kurhaus' gives a resounding peal to call the guests from their slumbers, and shortly afterwards they appear at the Trinkhalle,' promenading between their 'glasses along the walks in front of the building. Here they are joined by others coming from the village, either on foot or in the omnibuses, and this early re-union, which is enlivened by the strains of a tolerable band playing in a pavilion close by, is a great feature of the place, affording the opportunity of meeting every body, and of indulging in any amount of gossip and scandal. About eight or nine o'clock comes breakfast, for which tea and coffee with bread are given, but no meat, eggs, butter, &c., unless ordered and paid for extra. Between breakfast and midday comes the bathing; and during the morning the bath houses are thronged with patients, either going into or coming out of their bath rooms, or waiting for their turn. About twelve occurs an event always attended with great excitement, namely, the arrival of the mail. Such is the eagerness of the visitors to get their letters, that it has been necessary to subvert the ordinary system of delivery, and to adopt a more expeditious mode of proceeding. The visitors are on the watch for the diligence, and the moment it arrives a crowd of impatient ladies and gentlemen lay close siege to the bureau. The post-bag is hurried in at the window, and as 'sorting' is out of the question, the attendant takes the letters and papers out one at a time, and shouts out the name of the person it is addressed to. This call is generally responded to by hier,' ici,'' son qui,' or such other exclamation as the nationality may dictate, and the letter is tossed to its impatient owner over the heads of the crowd. If a call receives no answer, the absentee, who is looked upon with peculiar

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commiseration, is informed by his friends that his name has been called, and that his letter is waiting for him. At half-past twelve there is a table d'hôte dinner in the Grande Salle of the establishment, a large and handsome room about 130 feet long by 60 feet wide, and in which, during the height of the season, three or four hundred people dine. Nothing is done in the way of medicament after this meal, but the afternoon is usually devoted to longer walks, or to carriage excursions. At half-past seven there is a table d'hôte supper, after which the band plays again for an hour, and there are either dancing soirées in the hall, or less pretentious reunions in the Damen-salon,' until bedtime, which is of necessity early. It is hardly necessary to add that the varied phases of the day's occupations afford, to the ladies, almost infinite scope for the science of the toilette, and that the resulting effects often excite mingled wonder and admiration. Some fault has been found with the living, but for a professedly plain diet, suited for invalids, I hardly think it deserves the censure. The following were the bills of fare, taken at hazard the day before I came away :

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an excellent sample of the national manufacture.

The number of patients entered in the books as taking the cure in 1867 was 800, of whom there were 156 English, 221 Swiss, 180 Germans, 123 Italians, and 120 of various other nationalities. In 1868 the number was about 1,000, the increase being almost entirely in the English. This number, however, only represents a fraction of the visitors to the place, as very large numbers go there for pleasure, and do not appear in the list. Among the guests last season were the Earl and Countess of Meath, Lord and Lady Brabazon, Lord and Lady Powerscourt, Lord and Lady Dalkeith, Countess Somers, the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of London, the Grand Duke and Duchess of Baden, the Duchess d'Aumale, the Duc de Guise, Count Apponyi, General M'Clellan, and many other persons of fashion and distinction.

The diseases and ailments for which the iron-cure is recommended comprise all that enormous class of which debility is the chief characteristic, and for which a general tonic action on the system is the appropriate treatment. Such diseases in a legion of forms are unfortunately too well known, particularly among the fairer half of humanity, and there are few of them that will not find relief, if not perfect eradication in the iron-cure, if properly applied; Schwalbach, Pyrmont, and St. Moritz bear perpetual testimony to this, in the numbers of palefaced, weak invalids who annually resort to them, to be sent home ruddy and strong. The choice between these three places is often a matter of indecision, and therefore I would, before concluding, add a few words as to the particular eligibility of St. Moritz, in comparison with the other two.

In the first place, as regards drinking, to which the most importance is to be attached, the properties of the water, as due to its chief ingredients, iron and carbonic acid, are very nearly the same in all three places. Some difference in

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