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croachments of the sea, or other causes, exhibit considerable disarrangement of the strata.
4. Some rocks contain no fossils, whilst others abound with them. Granite, slate, and other primitive rocks, as they are called, are of the former class. The latter class are so numerous, and their contents so varied, that we must pass them over till we come to details in the after part of this lecture.
5. Those rocks which contain no fossils, lie below the others; they stand in the same relation to them as the foundation of a building does to the superstructure, and are necessarily supposed to be the oldest. Cuvier says, "they form the skeleton, or rough frame work of the earth."
6. Those that contain the fossils of creatures very much unlike any that now exist, lie next above them.—The earliest traces of extinct animals occur just above the coal, and consist of foot-prints of beasts, birds, and reptiles, amongst which the Chirotherium,* the Ornithicnites,† and the Labyrinthidon, deserve special mention.
The period in which it is supposed the rock above these were formed, has been designated the "age of reptiles." Their remains consist of the Plesiosaurus, a word signifying "near to a lizard;" the Ichthyosaurus,‡ or fish-lizard, the Iguanodon,|| so called from its tooth resembling that of the guana; the Pterodactyle,§ or fingerwings, and others allied to the lizard tribe.
7. The layers containing the remains of animals more nearly resembling the present races are deposited above these.-Amongst them may be noticed, the Palæotherium, or ancient wild beast; the Anoplotherium,(a) or unarmed wild beast; the Dinotherium, (b) or terrible wild beast; the Megatherium,(c) or large wild beast; the Mastodon, (d) or nippled-tooth, and a variety of others.
8. The latest deposits contain the remains of animals just like those now alive, though they are found in countries to which they
• Figured in Youths' Magazine, 1837, p. 291.
↑ Described in Youths' Magazine for 1839. p. 290.
1 Vide Youths' Magazine, 1837, p. 290.
Some bones of this animal were represented in our volume for 1837, p. 253.
§ Described and figured in Youths' Magazine, 1837, p. 325.
(a) Two species are represented in our vol. for 1840. p. 145.
(b) Ib. p. 109.
(c) Ib. p. 1.
are strangers in the present day. Thus, for example, the bones of the elephant, the bear, and the hyana, are abundant in Great Britain.
9. These several remains are not mere freaks of nature; but appear to have been once animated.-This is evident from their being found in various stages of decomposition; from the cuttle-fish with its ink so well preserved as to be still applicable to the same uses as that of the living fish, to the mouldering bone or process that is too friable to admit of its being handled. The very foot-prints of birds and tortoises have been discovered, so clearly marked, as to leave no doubt whatever as to their real character. The undigested food of various fossil creatures has also been found, and cololites, or the petrified intestines of fishes are sometimes met with. appear to be the facts of geology.
(To be continued.)
FLEEING FOR REFUGE.
WHEN Noah had entered the ark, "the Lord shut him in.” This, in a spiritual sense, does not always take place immediately. With many, who have thrown themselves into the arms of Jesus, the door remains open, that with sorrow and anguish they may review the dreary waste of their past lives. But, before ever they are aware, the Lord likewise shuts them in. The alarming prospect behind them is suddenly hidden from their view; the mountains of their iniquities are swept away by a mighty hand. They know themselves to be in a state of grace, that all is atoned for, pardoned, forgotten. Krummacher.
ANSWER XII.-Ungodly Relatives. (see p. 175.)
MY DEAR YOUNG FRIEND,-The case you have laid before the readers of the Youths' Magazine in the last number of that miscellany, is by no means an uncommon one: though, at the same time, it is one that must awaken the warmest interest of all who have the welfare of the young at heart. It cannot be otherwise than matter for the deepest gratitude and rejoicing that you are relying implicitly on the merits of Christ for salvation, and are anxiously concerned to do the will of God. It is at wishes and
motives that God looks, rather than at outward acts; and if the desire for greater conformity to Christ's image be indeed the absorbing principle of your affections, you have much cause to be thankful that you have attained to your present standing in the christian ranks. The greatest and best of men find serious and trying difficulties in working out the requirements of the gospel, and none amongst us have any right to presume that they are already perfect. "When I would do good," said one who had attained high proficiency in the christian walk, "evil is present with me." "The things that I would, I do not." O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death!"
In tendering you such advice as your circumstances seem to require, I should say, that the chief inquiry incumbent upon one whose "first wish is to do the will of God," is to ascertain clearly what that will is. It is an error extremely prevalent in the present day, to magnify very greatly the difficulties attending this enquiry. There is no other revelation of God's will beside the Bible. You need not lament your inability to consult "religious persons on their opinions and practice." You would find none on whom you could "rely," if you possessed the friendship of the whole religious world. The Bereans, ignorant as they were of the first principles of truth, are nevertheless commended as "noble," because they refused to take even apostolic teaching upon trust. They searched the scriptures to ascertain its truth. Cultivate then, my dear young friend, in the first place, adequate ideas of the sufficiency of scripture. You are placed by your own account in circumstances of peculiar difficulty. Many characters brought before us in the Bible were similarly circumstanced. Study their cases, and ascertain how they acted. Joseph and Daniel for example were like yourself, surrounded by worldly-minded persons who were not even "relatives," and who had no "serious thought of the future." But the scriptures present us with one perfect example of transcendant holiness, consistent under every temptation, immaculate under all assaults of the Evil One, in the person of Jesus Christ. It is not in the power of language to say how "he suffered being tempted ;" and all this for the express end that he might be able to succour those who are similarly assailed, and amongst them your own self. Realise christianity then as a system that involves likeness to Christ. Keep close to Him. Commune much with him. Study his character.
Walk in his steps. Go to no place where you feel his guiding hand about to loose its hold of your's; and by so doing you will act out the second suggestion I would propose
"Walk wisely to them that are without." Prudence and wisdom are fellow-lodgers. It bespeaks, therefore, no compromise of christianity to use a proper degree of caution in dealing with the world. Visible religion is much more intelligible than that which is merely audible. The wisdom that descendeth from above is first pure, then peacable, gentle, and easy to be intreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy. Kindness, gentleness, humility, and especially the absence of every thing like an assumption of superiority, will make surer and speedier way for usefulness among your ungodly relatives, than a querulous and impetuous spirit for argument and disputation. May I be allowed, my dear young friend, to hint, that in this particular, your conduct may perhaps be a little blameable. You speak of your relatives as persons who will not "bear contradiction." I must confess I do not altogether like that expression. Religion is not to be advanced by contradiction. "The servant of the Lord must not strive;" he must instruct in meekness; waiting his opportunity, and dropping in a word in season; but above all things-to return to the advice with which I set out-he must let his light so shine before them, that they also, seeing his good works, may be led to glorify the Father who is in heaven.
In conclusion, resort to prayer under every perplexity. This is the very purport of such an exercise. God answers prayer much more frequently than we are apt to imagine. We should be fully satisfied of this if we knew where to look for those answers; but they seldom come through the channels which we have carved out for them. But still they come; not that God "makes a new thing," in mercy more frequently than in judgment; but he so opens our eyes as to present to us "wondrous things out of his law," which we had never seen before. Take your Bible then with you into your closet, and on your knees ask God's light to read it by, and you will find something in it suited to every emergency, and rise from the exercise, prepared to run with patience and consistency the race set before you. I am, my dear young friend,
"They that seek me early shall find me.”
COME, while the blossoms of thy years are brightest,
While yet thy hand th' ephemeral wreath is holding-
Soon will the freshness of thy days be over,
And thy free buoyancy of soul be flown;
Come, while the morning of thy life is glowing-
Life has but shadows, save a promise given,
Then will the crosses of this brief existence
The spirit lingers in unclouded bliss,
Though o'er its dust the curtained grave is closing-