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in the canton, the Council of State itself would not have the right to do as he wished. On the 30th of the same month, Niederer, Krusi and Naef asked the Municipality to acquaint them with the tenor of Pestalozzi's memorial, a request that was also refused. We do not know what precise answer the Government made Pestalozzi, but it was bound to be in the negative.

Niederer continued therefore to direct his institute for girls, and Naef his for deaf mutes, while Krusi and Knusert together founded a boarding-school for boys, the sole direc tion of which, however, soon devolved upon Knusert, Krusi being called away to direct the cantonal school of Trogen in his native canton.

Meanwhile Niederer had commenced proceedings against Schmidt for libel. After a long trial, however, Schmidt was acquitted.

But this state of things, which had already deprived the institute of the support it most needed, and was now fast bringing about its final ruin, made Pestalozzi exceedingly unhappy, so that he was ready to do anything for the sake of peace, except indeed the one thing necessary, which was to dismiss Schmidt. Since the death of his wife he had been without the advice and affectionate sympathy that for forty-five years had supported and cheered him through the hardest trials; and though his belief in his work, his devotion, vivid imagination, and persevering activity were still the same, they not infrequently gave way to periods of grief and despondency. In February, 1823, during one of these sad times, he wrote to the Niederers, begging them to put an end to the proceedings they had instituted against Schmidt, and in which the old man, anxious to answer for his friend, had found himself involved. This letter, which Pestalozzi afterwards printed in the Experiences, runs as follows:

"I implore you, in the name of God, deliver me from the martyrdom that I am suffering in this guilty war, which for nearly six years has been raging between our two socalled Christian institutions with wicked and arti-Christian obstinacy. Think, my dear Niederer, of all we have hoped together, and of what we have been for each other; become, so far as possible, my old friend again, as I would fain be

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once more yours. Oh, Niederer, would that our former love might so strengthen and sanctify us that we might go and take the sacrament together without fearing to cause surprise and scandal amongst our neighbours! Dear friends, I am standing on the brink of the grave; will you not let me go down to it in tranquillity? But there is also something left for me to do on earth; I implore you, therefore, free me from the tortures that these miserable quarrellings inflict upon me, that henceforth I may go on with my work in peace. Grant me this help, and I promise you my love and gratitude till my life's end."

One wonders how Niederer can have resisted such an appeal, and whether he had completely lost the admiration and respect he had once felt for Pestalozzi. This was certainly not the case, but the fact is that he dared not trust the feeble old man so long as he remained such a mere tool in Schmidt's hands.

Meanwhile the Vaudese Government, enlightened either by Pestalozzi's request as to the collaborators who had left the institute, or by the reports of the Yverdun municipality on the proceedings that had been instituted against them, had become aware of this unhappy state of things; and, fearful lest these painful disputes should result in the ruin of a useful and celebrated institution, determined to put an end to them. It accordingly instructed its representative at Yverdun to interpose and make an effort to bring about a reconciliation, which, after much trouble, he succeeded in doing, the contending parties consenting to sign a sort of treaty of peace, which was drawn up in French by Niederer himself. It will be observed that in the preamble of this document, which we give below, Pestalozzi occupied a place apart, as if he were not really concerned in the matter:

"The undersigned, Doctor Henry Pestalozzi, founder and head of an educational institute in Yverdun, together with Hermann Krusi, director of the cantonal school of Appenzell at Trogen, Conrad Naef, head of an institute for deaf-mutes, and Doctor Jean Niederer, minister of the Gospel and head of an institute for girls, of the one part, and Joseph Schmidt of the other part, having resolved to terminate their differences amicably, and in a manner consistent with the personal

character, dignity, and civil and social position of those concerned, have agreed on the following points:

"I. They declare to be contrary to truth, their better knowledge, and their real convictions, all the slanderous statements and imputations that have, as the result of cer tain misunderstandings, been spoken, written, or printed since the return of the above-named Joseph Schmidt to the institute of Pestalozzi in 1815, whoever may have been the subject of the said statements and wherever they may have originated They particularly make a formal retraction of the charges and counter-charges made in connection with certain financial disputes, as being without foundation, and, so far as they affect the honour and uprightness of the persons concerned, as being the result of a misapprehension and of the heat of passion.

“II. The law-suits now pending to be withdrawn by the proper party, each side paying its own costs.

"III. The still unsettled financial question to be referred to four arbitrators, who, in the event of equal votes, shall choose a further arbitrator to decide the matter. Each side to choose its own arbitrators, and to have absolute freedom of choice. The decision to be made public, if so desired.

"IV. As it is essential, on the one hand, that the internal harmony of the establishments and the free action of those who direct them be undisturbed, and, on the other, that the means at present existing for Pestalozzi's undertaking be made the best possible use of, Messrs. Naef and Niederer offer to do what they can to further his efforts, provided, that is, that they can be useful to him and that he makes them a personal request, and on the understanding, of course, that they will as carefully avoid all interference with the internal relations and management of Pestalozzi's institute as Pestalozzi would avoid interference with theirs. "V. In the event of new misunderstandings and dissensions arising in connection with Pestalozzi's wishes concerning the before-mentioned persons and their establishments, a contingency of which we are not at all afraid, the differences to be settled in a frank and generous spirit by arbitrators appointed in Yverdun itself.

"VI. In the event of Pestalozzi's unwillingness to make the whole of this agreement public, Messrs, Krusi, Naef

and Niederer will be satisfied with the publication of the first three points or the first alone.

"Yverdun, the 31st December, 1823.



J. NIEDERER, in my

own name and in that of


This document was published in 1824 in the ninth volume of Cotta's edition of Pestalozzi's works, where it is accompanied by a declaration, dated the 17th March, 1824, which begins thus:

"I am grieved beyond measure to be obliged to insert here this memorial of a most unhappy time; but I cannot do otherwise, for these hostilities, which from their first causes to their final consequences lasted no less than ten years, have crushed all my hopes by slowly destroying every means I possessed of reaching the end to which I had devoted my life. I hope the public will share the sorrow I feel in thus being compelled to declare that these circumstances have rendered the foundation from which I expected such good results entirely impossible, and have made me absolutely incapable of fulfilling the engagements I contracted with so much ardour."

Pestalozzi then goes on to explain how these dissensions brought trouble into his establishment, robbed him of the confidence of the public, and so ruined his institute, upon which he counted as a fundamental and indispensable part of his projected enterprise. He adds, that he has spent his last farthing, that he has even had to use some of his grandson's money, that his pen is the only resource left him for carrying on the work of his life, that he already has several manuscripts almost completed, and that he is going to work with redoubled zeal.

Few of Pestalozzi's friends read this declaration without a feeling of burning shame. They accused Schmidt of having excited illusory hopes in the old man so long as there was a chance of increasing the subscription to his writings, of having caused him to waste the proceeds of this subscrip

tion in law-suits and fruitless efforts to give an appearance of vitality to an institute already as good as dead, and lastly, of not having opened his eyes till it was impossible to go on any longer.

The fact is that Pestalozzi never had the disposal of his two thousand pounds; that Schmidt, clever as he was, was a very bad administrator; and that the noble friend of humanity died as poor as he had lived.

The final and complete ruin of his hopes seems to have come upon Pestalozzi suddenly, for, a few weeks before the date of his declaration to the public, he was still occupied with the question of repairs, towards which, on the 30th of January, 1824, the municipality had voted him a grant of fifty pounds.

Meanwhile all the pupils in a position to pay had left the institute, a few poor children alone remaining. Gottlieb and his wife had gone to farm at Neuhof; and Pestalozzi, almost penniless, still owed the town arrears of rent for the field that he had taken on lease in 1817.

The rest of this year, 1824, was spent in struggling against these financial difficulties, the old man's distress at one time being so great that he allowed himself to be persuaded to take a step which, in spite of our knowledge of Schmidt's ascendancy over him, would be absolutely incredible were it not that the proof of it is still to be seen in the Yverdun archives. When pressed by the Municipality for the arrears of rent above mentioned, the old man, in a letter dated the 5th of November, 1824, asked that his debt should be reduced by the amount of an indemnity due to him for having been to Basle in 1814 at the time when it seemed likely that a military hospital would be established in Yverdun.

As Schmidt took the management of these financial matters entirely out of Pestalozzi's hands, the old man was able to devote a great deal of attention to his literary work. He was chiefly engaged now in elaborating his elementary exercises of language, but he also, about this time, completed and published a pamphlet of some eighty pages, entitled: Views on Industry, Education, and Politics, in connection with the State of our Country before and after the Revolution, and bearing the motto, Know Thyself.

In this interesting work, which deserves to be better known, the author looks forward to a great development of

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