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industry and capital, and to a correspondingly great increase in the numbers of those who, dependent upon their daily earnings for a livelihood, are more exposed than any other class to discontent and misery, a state of things which will only serve to aggravate the existing antagonism between the classes. The only remedy for all this lies, in his opinion, in a good system of popular education. At the end of the book are two appendices; one giving " the picture of a poorschool," the other treating of "the religious education of the children of the poor."

Whilst Pestalozzi, carried away by his heart and imagination, was thus giving himself up to philanthropic speculations, his ruin was slowly being consummated.

Schmidt's harshness and domineering spirit had made him many enemies. People blamed him for the many unworthy things Pestalozzi had done in the last few years, and reproached him for having caused the ruin of the institute. Under these circumstances it was soon felt that it would be well to get him out of the place, and so render a signal service not only to Pestalozzi and his institute, but also to the town. Schmidt had never complied with the formalities that the law required from all strangers domiciled in the canton, and ugly rumours-which, however, we have reason to believe were unfounded-had been circulated about his morality. Representations to this effect were now made to the Council of State of the canton by some persons whose names have never transpired, but whose opinions were certainly shared by the great majority of the inhabitants of Yverdun. These complaints had the desired result; for there is an entry in the secret register of the Council, dated the 6th of October, 1824, which runs as follows:

"The commissioners of police report that having been informed that Mr. Victor Joseph Schmidt, a Tyrolese, had encouraged certain acts of immorality in Mr. Pestalozzi's institute at Yverdun, they instructed the justice of the . peace to examine Mr. Theodore Frank, a master in the said institute, who was said to be in a position to give information in the matter.

"From this gentleman's depositions, and from further information furnished by the justice of the peace, Mr. Schmidt appears to be gravely compromised,

As a result,

"The Council of State therefore, adopting, with certain modifications, the suggestion of the commissioners, have decided to expel Mr. Schmidt from the canton, and write the following letters:

"1. To the Justice of the Peace of the District of Yverdun "Sir,

"The Council of State requests you to inform Mr. Victor Joseph Schmidt, who is from another canton, and has been living in Mr. Pestalozzi's institute without having first obtained the right of residence in Yverdun, that he must leave the canton within six weeks from this date.

"In this connection the Council of State cannot refrain from expressing its surprise that Mr. Schmidt should have been allowed to reside in Yverdun for so long without fulfilling the necessary conditions of residence, and requests that for the future you will see that the law is more strictly observed. "2. To the sume. Confidential.

66 Sir,—

"Considering the relations which exist between Mr. Pestalozzi and Mr. Schmidt, it is probable that the latter's expulsion will cause this old man, to whose many misfortunes nobody can be indifferent, considerable pain. The Council of State being anxious, as far as possible, to soften this blow to Mr. Pestalozzi, requests you therefore, before notifying its decision to Mr. Schmidt, to send for Mr. Pestalozzi, and, without entering into any details as to the charges brought against his colleague, give him to understand that important considerations, affecting both his institute and public order, have compelled the Council to take this step; but that the esteem and respect in which he has always been held aro by no means shaken, and that the Government's interest in his work will remain the same.

"You will easily understand that the object of this confidential letter is, on the one hand, that you may avoid anything which would be likely to give publicityto these unpleasant facts; and, on the other, that you may do all you can to spare the feelings of an old man who, on account of his use ful work, his devotion to his fellow-creatures, and his present unfortunate circumstances, deserves especial consideration." The justice of the peace was thus instructed to make

Pestalozzi understand a decision of which he was not even to be told the reason—a difficult task, in which he does not

seem to have thoroughly succeeded. Be that as it may, Schmidt easily persuaded Pestalozzi that the blow was directed against his institute and himself, and the old man accordingly addressed violent protestations to the Council, pointing out that to send away a man whom he could not do without was tantamount to making him go himself. But his protestations were in vain; the Council would grant nothing but a few months' respite.

In letters dated the 19th and 21st of February, 1825, Pestalozzi announced to the Municipality that he was leaving Yverdun; but he also announced that he should some day return, and that he still claimed possession of the Castle. Now that his institute had ceased to exist, however, the Municipality did not feel bound to allow him the use of the Castle any longer; and yet it was not till they had been in correspondence with him for two years, and had actually begun to take legal steps for its recovery, that they regained possession of the building, in which Pestalozzi had left a single servant and his natural history collections, everything else having been sold.

It was with some show of reason, therefore, that Schmidt, in a pamphlet published in 1847 entitled, Pestalozzi and his Neuhof, attributed the final closing of the Yverdun institute to the Vaudese Council of State.

Pestalozzi left Yverdun with Schmidt early in March, 1825, and found a home with his grandson -Gottlieb, at Neuhof, a place he had himself made and the scene of his first efforts for helping the people.

Some of his biographers have stated that Pestalozzi was anxious to take to Neuhof the pupils still left at Yverdun, but that none of them were willing to accompany him. The Municipality, on the other hand, in a report addressed to the Council of State, affirms that some time before the institute was closed there was not a single pupil left. Both of these statements, however, are incorrect; for, as we shall see presently, it is certain that at least four of his former pupils went with him to Neuhof.

The institute of Yverdun had lasted for twenty years, and had enjoyed an unexampled prosperity; before it ceased to exist, it had fallen to the lowest degree of abasement.



In retirement at Neuhof he writes his last works and builds a pauper-school. Papers read before the Helvetian Society at Langenthal, and the Society of the Friends of Education at Brugg. Last sign of his love for the poor. Biber's pamphlet. Death of Pestalozzi. His funeral. His present tomb.

PESTALOZZI, nearly eighty years old, has now lost his last hopes and last illusions,; he has outlived his work, a calamity the very thought of which had made him shudder. [The great dream of his lifes over; the ideal which he had so passionately striven after from his youth, which had been, as it were, the one object of his love and faith, and to which he has sacrificed everything else, snow for ever gone. Schmidt, his self-imposed master, is still with him, leading him like a child, "but there can be little doubt that this tyrannical control was very irksome to the old man, for though he had submitted to it voluntarily, it was only because it seemed to him like a fatal necessity imposed upon him by his gratitude and the interests of his work.) Already in his discourse of the 12th of January, 1818, he had admitted that he was well aware of Schmidt's faults, and often suffered from them.

One would imagine that so much misfortune and so many disappointments would have broken the old man's courage, and crushed the activity and originality of his genius. But it was not so) for he had no sooner reached Neuhof than he eagerly took up his pen again, writing first his Song of the Swan, one of his most remarkable works, and as it were his dying instructions to posterity in the matter of education; and then the Experiences of My Life, a book in which he gives an account of his whole career, blaming himself for all his misfortunes, and endeavouring to exculpate Schmidt,


sometimes even at the expense of Niederer. Besides these two publications, of which we shall have more to say presently, he was also working at a fifth part to Leonard and Gertrude; a new manual for mothers, with instructions for the education of children up to the age of seven, to supplement the Book for Mothers already published, with which he was not entirely satisfied; and lastly, a series of elementary exercises for teaching children Latin as they learn their mother-tongue.

All this literary work did not in the least interfere with his plans for a poor-school, which he now looked forward to establishing in the very spot where he had made his first unsuccessful attempt fifty years before. With this end in view, he gave orders, almost immediately after his arrival, for the necessary buildings to be commenced. As the work proceeded, much too slowly for the impatient old man, he would go and spend hours teaching in the village school at Birr. He also took great delight in visiting his old acquaintances the peasants, talking over their affairs with them, and giving them advice and encouragement.

On going back to his grandson at Neuhof with Schmidt, Pestalozzi had been followed by four of his pupils, two of whom had been sent to him from Cadiz. He was so eager to spread his method in France, England, Spain, and Portugal, that he sent Schmidt to both Paris and London in furtherance of this object, and even meditated the publication of a periodical in French.

We owe these details to Henning, a former Yverdun pupil, who had become the director of a training school, and who visited Pestalozzi at Neuhof, in August, 1825. His account of his visit is as follows:

"I had not seen him for thirteen years, and found him looking older certainly, but on the whole very little changed. He was still active and strong, simple and open; his face still wore the same kindly, plaintive expression; his zeal for human happiness, and especially for the education of poor and little children, was as keen as thirteen years before. In spite of the heat he accompanied me to Lenzburg, and valiantly mounted the two or three hundred steps leading to the Castle. The vivacity of his speech and the vigour of all his movements inspired me with the

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