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instruction, and thus avoids temptations and the formation of habits which are often no less deadly in their effect on society than on his family and himself.

This instruction, too, that every one continues to acquire by his own observations and his own judgment, shields men from the tyranny of fashionable opinions,-opinions of the majority, that is, which at certain times are almost forced upon us, however full of error they may be. And it is not alone in economical science that men blindly accept false systems.

To-day the craze for natural science has replaced the unintelligent contempt with which it was formerly regarded; it has even come to be spoken of as science, as though there were no other; and its authority, often invoked even outside its domain, is almost the only authority still recognized. And thus we hear people declaring that the progress of natural science has put moral science to shame. May we not believe that men would be less exposed to such a confusion of ideas if their knowledge were the fruit of faculties trained from infancy, and the conquest of their attention, spirit of observation, and independent judgment?

One of the greatest dangers in these democratic times is the separation in the education of the different classes of society. The rich have one education, the poor another; the two classes, each going its own way, get farther and farther apart; with different habits, tastes, ideas, and feelings, nay, with a different language even, they end by no longer understanding each other; and so misunderstanding breeds mistrust, and mistrust, not infrequently hatred. It is easy to see how much this evil would be lessened if all children could remain together in the same schools up to the age of thirteen or fourteen; for, by that time, they would have a common stock of ideas, knowledge, and language, and durable relations would be possible between them.) Schools in the spirit of Pestalozzi would render such an education as this possible, without even the richest and most particular parents having anything to fear for their children. We should not only want teachers, however, animated by Pestalozzi's spirit, but a considerable increase in the number of primary classes. But this latter reform we shall certainly have to wait for, although the need is very generally felt.

There is, however, a reform which might easily be realized at once, and which, though less complete, would still do

much to lessen the lamentable antagonism that so often divides men engaged in different occupations.

It is now the custom for children intended for classical studies to begin Latin at eight or nine years of age, from which time they are, if not entirely separated, at any rate distinguished from their comrades who are preparing for industrial pursuits. Their work is quite different from the work of the others, and they are more or less encouraged to hold themselves aloof.

This state of things is not only bad for the harmony and sympathy that it is so desirable to see existing between al classes of society, but has besides the serious disadvantage of compelling parents to decide upon a calling for their children before they are in a position to judge of their tastes and aptitudes, with the result that many boys are launched into classical studies who will never. succeed in them, and many, who at fourteen are clever and eager to learn, find themselves shut out from the liberal professions because they did not make their choice before. This state of things is also exceedingly bad for the studies themselves.

Pestalozzi was long ago struck by the painful waste of time and labour involved in trying to teach children Latin before they are acquainted with the principles of their own language, that is to say, before they have any knowledge of grammar, without which it is impossible for them to arrive at any understanding of a dead language. He even insisted that the study of a foreign modern language should precede the study of Latin, that the child might be provided with a first simple means of grammatical comparison.

This system has since been attempted a hundred times in different countries, even in important public establishments as at Berne, and has always met with complete success. Pupils who have only commenced the study of dead languages at the age of thirteen or fourteen, have invariably made such rapid progress, that in a few years they have more than made up for the time which they seemed to have lost, but which in reality they had employed far more usefully.

And yet this reform has not yet been generally adopted, for nothing is more difficult than to change a system of studies which has slowly grown, as it were, into a national custom, and which is intended to preserve a certain unity between the schools of a country. Books and methods

adapted to children who as yet know nothing, would not of course do for those whose minds were already well formed. Besides, the reform would have to be carried out in all schools simultaneously, so that pupils might pass from one to another without detriment to their work. This reform, however, would be so advantageous in every respect, that it will certainly some day be adopted.

One of the chief vices of modern society is pride, in all its forms: vanity, ambition, the spirit of rivalry and domination, the desire to shine, to rise above others, to surpass them in power and in wealth; and this vicious tendency, into which our nature so easily slips, is aggravated nearly every day in class-rooms where the activity of the pupils is stimulated by prizes and other unwise means. Instead of being satisfied with the natural emulation which, in a properly conducted school, results from the very nature of things, and from the satisfaction of doing well and meeting with success, teachers employ all sorts of artificial means to excite and keep alive an unhealthy and un-Christian emulation, a desire for distinctions and honours, and a spirit of rivalry, which is not always unmixed with spite, envy, and hatred.

In his very earliest works, Pestalozzi condemned and pro-scribed these artificial means of exciting emulation; and in his after labours he did better still and rendered them superfluous. His elementary exercises, in fact, by reason of their starting-point, gradation, and connection, are so thoroughly adapted to the faculties, tastes, and needs of the child, that he takes part in them with pleasure, the mere satisfaction of feeling that he is learning and discovering, and that his powers are increasing, being a sound and sufficient stimulus. And so when we teach children by the rational elementary method, we are no longer tempted to make their vanity the stimulus to activity.

These are a few only of the points of view from which the discovery of the great educational reformer appears to us to be the chief factor in the solution of the social problem by which we are confronted to-day.

To sum up, that part of Pestalozzi's work which will endure, and that which constitutes him the benefactor of humanity, is . his application of his philosophy to an elementary method of education. If we have succeeded in our attempt to explain this method, it will be clear to everybody that it does not

consist in a certain set procedure, and that no perfect type of it is to be looked for in what was done either at Burgdorf or Yverdun. It will be clear, too, why Pestalozzi himself was never entirely satisfied with what he had done, and why he went on working and searching till his life's end.

He died at his work, this noble friend of the poor; and, lying, he addressed a supreme appeal to those who might do more and better than he had done, and continue after him the work that he had the sorrow of leaving unfinished. In his humble modesty he seems to have forgotten that it was he who had accomplished the hardest and most important task, by laying bare the vices of his time, discovering the principles of a salutary reform, and throwing a way open in which we have now but to walk.

It is for the true and warm friends of humanity, those who, understanding Pestalozzi, feel themselves at one with him in spirit and heart, to answer his appeal, and follow him in the difficult path made easier by his devotion. To-day, the gate stands wide open, and the need is pressing.



WISHING, in our work on Pestalozzi, to study the evolution of his thought throughout his long career of activity and self-sacrifice, we endeavoured to consider it apart from the foreign influences which occasionally modified its manifestations, and, for this reason, we abstained from mentioning the works published by Pestalozzi between 1807 and 1811, in the writing of which Niederer had a considerable share.

And yet these works deserve to be known; for though they are not always the pure and true expression of the master's ideas, they still give an interesting insight into his opinions and the working of his mind at the time when the institute of Yverdun was at the height of its fame.

Nor is that part of these works which is to be attributed to Niederer without importance. Pestalozzi's biographers have not forgiven this philosopher for having put something of his own spirit and style into the spirit and style of his master; and this grievance has made them unfair to the most enlightened of Pestalozzi's collaborators, and prevented their recognizing his merit and the very real part he took in the elaboration of the "method." It seems to us that to rescue from oblivion a literary collaboration at which he worked with the most complete self-forgetfulness, is the least we owe to his memory.

This was also the opinion of Seyffarth, who, in 1873, published, as an Appendix to his edition of Pestalozzi's works, two volumes containing the writings of Niederer and the master's other collaborators.

As we have seen, Pestalozzi first entrusted to Krusi and Buss, and then to Schmidt, the writing of what he called his

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