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else. "The ship was well manned; that being dismissed, that being other than it was; "it would have been lost."

"The ship was well manned, or it would have been lost." Or, in German oder, is other. The resolution of this sentence, therefore, is the same as the former.

In the second of the two examples, "Unless the ship had been well manned, it would have been lost," the contrivance is the same, with a mere change of position. Unless, is a word of the same import, rather the same word, as else. Unless is PREFIXED to the conditioning predication, whereas else is SUFFIXED; and that is the difference. The word except, which signifies take away, may be substituted for unless. A peculiar application of if (give) may here also be exemplified. If with the negative, (if not,) has a similar signification with unless, except; If the ship had not been well manned, &c."

Let us now pass to another case.



Although the ship was well manned, it was lost." The two predications may change places, without change of meaning. "The ship was lost, although it was well manned."

What (as above) was to be marked by else, unless, if not, except, and so on, was the connexion between a cause and its usual effect; that is, the manning of a ship, and the safety of the ship. What is to be marked in this case is the want of

connexion between a cause and its usual effect. It is done by similar means.

Although is part of an obsolete verb, to allow, to grant. The two predications are: "The ship was well manned," "The ship was lost." I want to mark between my two predications not only a connexion, that of the antecedence and consequence of the predicated events, but the existence of a consequent differing from that by which the antecedent is usually followed. Although, prefixed to the predication of the antecedent event, gives notice of another predication, that of the consequent, and of a consequent differing from that by which the antecedent might have been followed Grant such an antecedent, such and not such was the consequent.


The same connexion is marked by other conjunctions. "The ship was well manned, nevertheless it was lost." Nevertheless, means not less for that. Notwithstanding the ship was well manned, it was lost." Notwithstanding, is, not being able to prevent, maugre, in spite of. The resolution of the above sentences is obvious. "The ship was well manned, yet it was lost." Yet is the verb get, and has here the force of although, grant. "The ship was well manned, yet (or got, that being got, had, granted) it was lost." The ship was well manned, still, it was lost." is part of an obsolete verb, to put, to fix, to esta"The ship was well manned, still (that put, that supposed) it was lost."



A few more cases will exemplify all that is material in the marking power of the conjunctions.

"We study, that, we may be learned." The connexion here, again, is that of cause and effect. "We study:" "We may be learned," are the two predications, between which the connexion in question is to be marked. The demonstrative pronoun performs the service. "We may be learned, that we study:" we study; what? to be learned.


"John is more learned than James is eloquent." The conjunction here is a relative term, and consists of the two words, more than. two predications are, "John is learned," "James is eloquent." The connexion between them is, that they are the two parts of a comparison turning upon the point of greatness in degree. The two words more than, suffice to mark that connexion. Than is but a mode of spelling and pronouncing that, which use has appropriated to this particular case. "John is learned, more that (that being the more, the other of course is the less), James is eloquent."

As, obsolete as a pronoun, only exists as a conjunction. It is a word of the same import with that. The following will suffice in exemplification of the marking property which it retains. 66 Virgil was as great a poet as Cicero an orator." The two predications are,


Virgil was a great poet," "Cicero was a great orator." They also are connected as the two parts of a comparison, turning upon the point of equality in degree. As, or that, suffices to mark that connexion. "Virgil was a great poet," that (namely great) Cicero was an orator. We shall see afterwards, in the composition of RELATIVE TERMS, that every such term consists of two words, or the same word taken twice. The conjunction here is a relative term, and consists of two words, namely, as, or that, taken twice. "Virgil was a poet great, that that, an orator was Cicero;" the first that, marking great as poet; the second that, marking great as orator.



"It is not easy for the Mind to put off those confused notions and prejudices it has imbibed from custom, inadvertency, and common conversation. It requires pains and assiduity to examine its ideas, till it resolves them into those clear and distinct simple ones out of which they are compounded; and to see which, amongst its simple ones, have or have not a necessary connexion and dependence one upon another. Till a man doth this in the primary and original notions of things, he builds upon floating and uncertain principles, and will often find himself at a loss."-Locke, Hum. Und. b. ii. c. 13. s. 28.

It will now be instructive to retrace our steps, to look back upon the space we have passed, and contemplate the progress we have made toward our journey's end.

We have become acquainted with the elementary feelings of our nature; first, those derived immediately from our bodies, whether by impressions made on the surface of them, or unseen causes operating on them within; secondly, the feelings which, after the above mentioned feelings have

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