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serve the differences between the sea and landwinds; as well those that blow upon, as those that blow from the land and sea.

Free Winds.

Enquire whether winds do not blow from all points of the heavens.

Winds do not differ much more in the quarters they blow from, than in their qualities; some being strong, others gentle; some constant, others variable; some cold, others hot; some moist, and dissolving, others dry, and constringing; some bringing clouds, rain, or storms; others calming and clearing the air.

The different qualities of winds.

Enquire into and give the history of the several species, or above mentioned differences of winds; and how they vary as to climates and countries.

There are three local origins of winds; as being either, 1. precipitated from above; 2. rising out of the earth*: produced in the body of the air itself.

* And sea.


The local origins of winds.

Enquire after the three abovementioned origins of winds; viz. 1. Which of them descend from that called the middle region of the air; 2. Which breathe from the caverns of the earth; whether they rush out boisterous, and in a body; or escape insensibly by degrees, and afterwards roll together, as rivulets collect into rivers; 3. and lastly, which of them are generated indifferently, in all places, from the swelling and expanding of the contiguous air.

But all the productions of winds are not original; some being accidental, and proceeding from a compression, percussion, and repercussion of the air.

Accidental generations, or productions of winds.

Let enquiry be made into all the accidental generations of winds: though these are not proper generations of winds; but rather increase and strengthen them, than actually produce and excite them.

And so much for the winds that commonly obtain. But besides these there are also certain extraordinary winds, out of the common course; such as fiery winds, whirlwinds, stormy winds, and tornados; and these rage above ground :

there are likewise subterraneous winds; some whereof are vaporous, sultry, and mercurial: as in mines: others sulphureous and burst out of chasms, caused by earthquakes; or rise hot from burning mountains.

Extraordinary winds, and sudden gusts.

Enquire into all uncommon, monstrous and miraculous kinds of winds.

From the particular kinds of winds, let the enquiry pass on to the things which contribute to them; or are supposed to raise or lay them.

The things that contribute to winds; and excite
or appease them.

The enquiry should not run out into astrological considerations about the winds; nor accuracies as to the horoscope of the heavens: only the more manifest observations of the winds increasing at the rising of certain stars, or the eclipsing of the luminaries, or the conjunctions of the planets, are not to be neglected: and remark how far they depend upon the course of

the sun or moon,

Enquire what the different kinds of meteors contribute to the winds; what earthquakes contribute; what showers; and what the meeting of

winds together: for these things hang in a chain, and draw in each other.

Enquire what a diversity of vapours and exhalations contributes to the winds; and which kinds of them are the more productive of winds; and how far the nature of winds depends upon these their materials.

Enquire what those things contribute or make to winds, which are found upon the earth; what the mountains contribute, and the dissolving of snow upon their tops; what those huge masses of ice which float, and are carried about in the sea; what the difference of soil, or any large tracts of land, as marshes, sands, woods, champaigns, &c. Again, enquire what those things contribute which are performed by human agency; as the burning of heath, fuzzes, &c. for the improvement of land; the burning of corn, or villages, as in wars; the draining of marshy lands; the continual discharging of cannon; the ringing of numerous bells together as in great cities, &c. It is true, these are smaller matters; but they may have some effect.

Enquire into all the ways of raising and laying the winds; though sparingly as to any of the fabulous or superstitious methods of doing it.

From hence let the enquiry pass on to the limitations of the winds, in height, extension, and duration.


The limitations of the winds.

Let diligent enquiry be made as to the height, or elevation, of the winds; and if there be any tops of mountains where the winds blow not; or if the clouds sometimes appear motionless and stationary, at the same time that the winds are blowing strong upon the earth.

Enquire carefully into the space which the winds are found at once to possess; and within what bounds they keep. For example, suppose the south wind should blow in a certain place; enquire whether the north wind actually blow at the same time, ten miles from that place. And again, enquire into how narrow a compass the winds may be reduced, whilst they run, as it were, through pipes; which they seem to do in some kinds of whirlwinds.

Enquire how long winds usually continue in their greatest, mean, or smallest duration, before they slacken, and as it were expire again; in what manner they rise and begin; and in what manner they languish and cease; whether of a sudden, by degrees, or how.

From these limits of the winds, let the enquiry proceed to their successions; either among themselves, or with regard to rain and showers: for as all winds and rain lead up each other, it would be a pleasure to know what order they dance in.

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