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Analyze an act of memory. What four points do you discover? Why do you call these elements of memory? Does each complete act of memory involve these elements?

Explain retention. Illustrate. What is retained? Explain recollection. Give synonyms. Illustrate. Explain association. Illustrate. Explain recognition. Give examples.

Describe the office of memory. What do you mean by the function of a faculty? What do you mean by a faculty? Give two characteristics of memory. Give a distinction between consciousness and memory.

State the author's definition of memory; your definition; Everett's definition.

Give synonyms of memories. Illustrate each. What is a percept? A re-percept? Why do you call recollections intellectual? Give three points of difference between experiences and memories.

What do you mean by energy? by soul-energies? by law? by laws of memory? Give the law of the brain. Give and explain its three requirements. Give the law of acquisition. Give and explain its three requirements.

five ways in

Give the law

Explain association and suggestion. Give the which ideas suggest each other. Illustrate by circles. of resemblance. Give three examples. Explain the law of contrast. Illustrate the law of contiguity. Give the law of correlation; also of analogy. Give examples of each.

What do you mean by the growth of memory? Explain the diagram showing the stages of memory-growth. What is meant by educating memory? How may you improve your memory?

Give your explanation of brute memory. How does brute memory differ from human memory?

State the law of forgetfulness. to forget? What should we forget?

Why is it important to be able
How do we forget?

Letter. Show your friend that graphic and other devices are designed to aid him to gain clear views of self; but insist on his verifying everything for himself by constantly looking within. Try to interest him in the improvement of his memory.

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CHAPTER XI

PHANTASY.

By this is meant the power to represent spontaneously our experiences in new forms which seem to be realities. Without purpose, the soul weaves into curious shapes its experiences. Self, as phantasy, does not create ideals, but merely conjoins experiences in new ways.

The soul is ever active. Intentional activity exhausts the physical organism. The brain needs rest. When I cease to think, and float off into dream-land, the brain rests, recuperates, but the soul continues its ceaseless activity. Self for his own amusement images an endless panorama. In revery, as in sleep, an endless chain of phantom-forms is ever passing. These pictures we call phantasms, and the power to produce them we term phantasy.*

Self, as memory, reproduces his past experiences unchanged. However faint our recollections, we recognize them as past experiences. But, in revery and in dreams, our experiences, strangely modified, are re-presented. Memory and sensation furnish materials. Self,

* This form of representation has been slighted by many psychologists. Most have treated it as a phase of imagination. I consider phantasy a distinct form of representation. This view seems to me to greatly simplify the subject. This orthography is preferred, because phantasy in this sense is a definite term. Webster says: "A phantasm is an image formed by the mind and supposed to be real." Phantasy, as here used, is the power to form phantasms. Fancy, a contraction for phantasy, is now used in so many senses as to be extremely objectionable.

as phantasy, weaves the materials into grotesque and fantastic groups called phantasms. At the time these seem to us objective realities. They often seem so real that we are surprised to find them phantoms of our brains.

Acts of Phantasy Analyzed.-We are conscious of the acts of self as phantasy. We are able to recall and examine some of these acts. Nothing is more common than dream-telling. Let us examine a day-dream. I was resting in my easy-chair. I ceased all intentional effort, and my senses ceased to bring me messages from the outer world. I drift into revery-land. "A beautiful flower-garden surrounds me. A sparkling fountain is near me. Floating on the little lake are three swans. A bevy of lovely girls, seated in a boat, cheer me with laughter and song. One"-the door-bell aroused me, and the scene vanished. At the time all seemed real. When aroused, I knew that the picture was the work of phantasy. Relate a day-dream and also a night-dream. Show the work of phantasy.

Office of Phantasy.-Phantasy is the power to weave our experiences into phantasms.

1. Self, as phantasy, aggregates his experiences. In this form of representation self, as memory, merely recalls without recognizing experiences. Phantasy conjoins experiences, immediate and revived. The material is not analyzed; it is merely joined together, or aggregated. Phantasy represents experiences in new forms. 2. Phantasy gives hints to memory, imagination, and thought. In discerning class-notions, the vague, shadowy phantasm dimly outlines the concept. We see three-sidedness, but the corners are blurred.

We see

the soldier, but shadows conceal his uniform and armor. Hints of phantasy doubtless help imagination to some of its grandest achievements. Phantasms often suggest realities.

3. Phantasy is the safety-valve of the soul. Death of brain-fiber follows each thought, emotion, and purpose. A few hours of vigorous study exhaust the working brain. The soul is ceaselessly active. Phantasy, we infer, acts through brain-areas not exhausted by intentional activity. While the working brain recuperates, the soul amuses itself with vivacious picture-groups.

Characteristics of Phantasy.-We study the phenomena of mental action in revery and dreams. We discover a new world called dream-land. We find that the soul is endowed with the capability to produce phantasms.

1. Phantasy is undirected representation. To give the weary brain rest, self, ceasing to acquire and direct, drifts off into the land of shadows. Spontaneously the mind forms grotesque and shadowy panoramas. Self, as phantasy, is a kaleidoscope.

2. Phantasy is lawless representation. The real world disappears and the shadowy world seems the real world. The soul feels joy or sorrow in view of these phantasms. The laws of time and place and sequence are ignored. The sea is crossed in a moment. Snowcastles are as warm as summer bowers.

3. Phantasy is self-drifting. We seem to be spectators. We see ourselves sicken and die. We attend our own funerals. We do not usually remember our dreams because we do not consciously connect the waking and the shadowy worlds. Self, as phantasy,

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