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2. Hysteria is hydra-headed illusion, occasioned by nerve-diseases. The victim believes the illusion reality. Phantasy dominates reason. Disillusion is difficult and sometimes impossible.

Happy Dreams.—It may be well to ponder some of the conditions favoring pleasant dreams:

1. Physical. Suitable food and warmth, good digestion, sufficient exercise, and proper recreation are essential to refreshing dreams. Avoid exhaustion:

2. Psychical. A good conscience, with cheerful, earnest work and rational recreation, prepare us for happy dreams. Avoid worry as you avoid sin.

3. Things to cherish. During our waking hours we should acquire knowledge and cherish everything beautiful and pure. We should labor unselfishly for human good. We should cherish every high and ennobling ideal. Our phantasms will thus become refreshing,

pure, and elevating.

4. Things to avoid. As we avoid deadly poisons, so should we avoid low and impure companionship, literature, or thoughts. If cherished, such things become nests of vipers and hosts of fiends to trouble us in our dreams. Avoid telling dreams. Even when they recur to you, drive them away by earnest work. Encourage no one to tell dreams in your presence. Avoid associating much with persons so weak as to believe in dreams and presentiments. So may your dreams be pleasant.

Comparative Psychology.-Numerous indications authorize the conclusions that brutes are endowed with the power to form phantasms. The dog, like some men, talks in his sleep. The horse evidently sees ghosts. The brute perceives, remembers, forms phantasms. But these representations are sensual and indescribably crude.


Review. Give the difference between presentative and re-presentative powers. Why are the perceptive faculties called presentative powers? Give the distinction between a percept and a re-percept. Do we recall emotions? What is the office of sense-perception? Consciousness? Memory? Define each. Etc.

Analyze an act of phantasy. Out of what are phantasms made? Does self as phantasy create? Mention some characteristics of phantasy. State the office of phantasy. Specify. What is a phantasm?

Give author's definition of phantasy; yours; Porter's.

State the relation of phantasy to memory; to the emotions; to will; to thought; to imagination.

Tell what you know about dreams. What has phantasy to do with dreams? Why do we not remember dreams? Explain somnambulism; mesmerism; drunkenness; insanity; visions; hysteria.

Name the conditions of happy dreams. Should we often tell dreams? Why?

Diagram and Letter.-You may now make an analysis of Chapter XI, and embrace this in your letter to your friend. Write a careful letter. Most persons have confused notions of phantasy, strangely mixing memory and imagination with phantasy. If in your power, make the distinctions clear to your friend.



By this is meant our power to intentionally represent our acquisitions in new forms. Out of our experiences, recalled and immediate, we make new wholes. As the potter molds clay, so we mold our acquisitions into new forms. As perception, self perceives things having properties. As memory, self represents his past expe

riences unchanged. Out of materials furnished by perception and memory, the mind, as imagination, constructs a new world called the ideal world.

Acts of Imagination Analyzed.-This block is a cubic foot. Now it is a cubic yard, now a cubic rod, now a cubic mile, now a cubic world. Now it is a rhomboid, now a cylinder, now an ellipse. Now it is wood, now iron, now gold. Now it is red, now yellow, now green. Self, as imagination, changes size, changes form, changes material, changes color. You may now make out of materials furnished, a tree. You have gold, iron, copper, silver. Your tree has copper roots, iron trunk and branches, silver leaves, and gold fruit. You may make five different trees out of the same material. You may also make of the same materials five chairs. Here you observe self, as imagination, constructing new wholes out of materials furnished.

You may now blot out St. Louis and make a city to suit yourself. The Gulf now extends to St. Louis, and the city is built at the foot of a snow-capped mountain. But you are the creator of this new St. Louis. You find that self, as imagination, erases old forms and constructs new forms out of materials furnished by memory.

Office of Imagination.-Imagination is the creative power of the soul. It is our power to give shape to our acquisitions. Self, as imagination, so changes and combines his acquisitions as to form new wholes. These new combinations are called creations of the mind. this sense, self, as imagination, creates.


1. Self, as imagination, modifies his acquisitions. The size, the form, the color, and the materials are in

finitely varied. Now the book could be placed in a mustard-seed; now it would fill a church. You may give many illustrations.

2. Self, as imagination, creates and destroys. Creation is used in the sense of making new wholes out of materials given. Imagination creates no new elements. Far out beyond the bounds of all worlds I create a new world and people it with new orders of intelligent beings. Not satisfied, I destroy my creation and make another vastly more magnificent. Try it.

3. Self, as imagination, projects the future. Napoleon fought his battles in imagination many times before he led his battalions to victory. The lover proposes again and again in imagination before he ventures his fate. Demosthenes addressed a thousand imaginary audiences before he captivated the Athenians. Often, in imagination, the teacher organizes and conducts her school before she enters the school-room. The youth lives many lives in imagination before he achieves success. The bride-elect goes through her part in the marriage-ceremony many times before the wedding-day.

4. Self, as imagination, creates ideals. This is preeminently the office of imagination. The painter determines to portray a noble heroism. This is the idea. As an object, he pictures a brave young man battling with oppression and misfortune in his heroic efforts to become a pre-eminent benefactor. The picture in his mind is his ideal. Now with pencil and brush he toils. Now he sees on the canvas his ideal realized, embodied. Ideals are the working-models for inventors, artists, poets, and character-builders. Our highest ideal is perfect manhood, realized only in Christ.

"Lives of great men all remind us

We can make our lives sublime."

From all noble lives we gather materials for the crea tion of our ideal life. Then, by every act, thought, and emotion, we struggle to realize and embody this ideal. This is character-building.

Characteristics of Imagination.-Certain peculiarities mark imagination as a distinct faculty.

1. Imagination is our power purposely to represent our acquisitions in new forms. Out of its cognitions, immediate and remembered, the soul intentionally constructs new forms. Inventors, artists, poets, educators, and scientists are gifted with vigorous imaginations.

2. Imagination is the intentional picturing power. All its products are individual and have a material basis. We call our capability to purposely make images, imagination. The successful student uses his imagination almost as much as he uses his reason.

3. Imagination is the creative power of the soul. In its highest form, it virtually creates. Its creations are new because experiences are set in new lights. "Poetry is truer than history." A fable may contain more truth than a biography, because the permanent meaning of things is set in general forms. Because they represent universal human nature, the creations of Homer and Plato and Shakespeare and Emerson will continue to live through the centuries.

Limits of Imagination.-Lofty as are his flights, self, as imagination, works within well-defined limits.

1. As to physical phenomena, imagination is limited to sense-percepts. I can place in my creations only

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