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THESE are our capabilities to discern relations. Self, as perception, gains the elements of knowledge; and self, as thought, elaborates these elements into higher forms. That we may discover relations, we compare; and that we may digest elementary notions, we reflect. This group of faculties is known by the following


The Thought-Powers.

The Comparative Powers.
The Elaborative Faculties.
The Logical Powers.

The Reflective Faculties.

The Understanding (indefinite).

Each name is expressive and specific. Omitting the last, these names may be used interchangeably.

The universe is a unit. Each individual, each group of individuals, and each system of groups, is a related part of one stupendous whole. Thinking is discerning relations.

First, we discover relations of similarity, and think individuals into classes. Our capability to discern classrelations and thus gain general notions is termed our classifying power, or conception.

Second, we discover truth-relations, and think notions into sentences. Our capability to discern and predicate truth-relations is termed judgment.

Third, we discover that each thing is in some causal way related to every other thing. Causes and effects, means and ends, conditions and dependencies, antecedents and consequents, ratios and proportions, elements and compounds, in myriad forms unite all things into infinite series of cause-relations. We discern causerelations and think conclusions. Our power to discern cause-relations and think judgments into arguments is called reason.

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You observe this figure, and this, and this. You discern that they are alike in being rectangular and having four equal sides. You discern the group-notion, square figures. Your power to do this is called conception. You know the meaning of the notions vertebrate and horse. You discern the agreement of these notions, and say the horse is a vertebrate. Your power to discern the agreement of notions is called judgment. As all animals are endowed with instinct, and as the dog is an animal, you discern the conclusion that dogs are endowed with instinct. Your power to infer conclusions is termed reason.

Self, as conception, elaborates percepts into concepts; self, as judgment, elaborates concepts into judgments; and self, as reason, elaborates judgments into


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By this is meant the power to think individuals into classes. Our percepts are notions of individual things. Between individuals we discern relations. I perceive this block, and this, and this, and this. They differ as to size and proportion, but I see that they are related as to the number of sides. I think these threesided figures into one class. As the notion three-sidedness is common to all three-sided figures, it is called a general notion or a concept.

We discern general notions through individual notions, as

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John and Ohio and (a) boy and (a) book are individual notions. Percepts are our scaffolding to enable us to think up to concepts. We discern the name-relation between John, Ohio, etc., and think all name-words into one class. Noun is a concept. Verb is a concept. All class-notions are concepts.

Acts of Conception Analyzed. You observe these blocks of various forms and sizes. You decide to consider them with reference to the number of sides. You abstract the property, number of sides. You leave out of view everything else. You now compare the several

figures. You discern common properties. This, and this, and this, have three sides; this, and this, and this, four sides. You generalize-discern a general property. You now classify the figures with reference to the common property. You collect them into groups. This group of three-sided figures you call triangles. You discern the group-notion or the concept, triangle. This group of four-sided figures you call quadrilaterals. You discern the group-notion or the concept, quadrilateral. So with the concepts pentagon, hexagon, etc. Draw the scaffolding, and analyze the act of forming the concept pencil; also, the concept tree; also, the concept lake; also, the concept quadruped.

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Elements of Conception.-From the analysis you discover the steps or processes by which the mind reaches concepts. Analytic observation, abstraction, generalization, and classification are processes of thinking things into classes. Self, as conception, advances by these steps in gaining group notions.

1. Analytic observation. You perceive things having properties. Here you have a collection of leaves. This leaf is oval, its veins are parallel, its edges are dentate. You observe this leaf, and this, and this, and note peculiarities. Observing things as having properties and parts is called analytic observation. The first step in elaboration is necessarily analytic. We must discriminate before we can assimilate.

2. Abstraction. You decide to consider leaves with reference to shape. You abstract shape and disregard the veins, edges, etc. Drawing out one quality and considering things with reference to this, regardless of other qualities, is called abstraction. Above, we considered figures with reference to number of sides. You may give other examples of abstraction. You discover how you get your notions of attributes. These notions you call abstract ideas, as redness, hardness, dullness, roundness, goodness, etc.

3. Comparison. Putting leaves side by side, you compare them,

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