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Judgment and other Faculties.-In gaining concepts we necessarily judge. Percepts and concepts are the materials out of which we make judgments. Re-percepts and re-concepts are simply remembered percepts and concepts. Re-judgments are remembered judgments. Imagination helps in arranging the materials. Self, judgment, discerns the truth-relations between notions. Beason enables us to compare judgments and infer conclusions. It is clear that judgment enters in some form into all distinct knowing; and it is equally certain that judging involves all the other intellectual powers. The soul is a unit in knowing.

Comparative Psychology. The brute is incapable of abstraction, hence can not form concepts. As the predicate of a judgment is necessarily a concept, it is evident that the brute is not endowed with judgment in the sense of the capability to discern truth-relations. Many brute acts seem to indicate the exercise of judgment, but it is believed that all brute activity can be accounted for without supposing the brute to be endowed with this power.

Axioms are Necessary Judgments. - Generalizations from necessary ideas are necessary judgments. These judgments are self-evident truths. They may be verified, but can not be proved. All axioms are necessary judgments. The parts of this apple are equal to this whole. So of this orange and this cube. From my intuitive insight into the relations of the parts to the whole, I discern the general truth-the parts are equal to the whole. The soul perceives directly necessary ideas, and from these elaborates self-evident truths.

Growth of Judgment.*-Conception is exercised ear* See "Education of Judgment," "Applied Psychology."

lier than judgment, but at a very early age children form crude judgments about food and surroundings. At first they use percepts as the subjects of their judg ments. When about three years old, the child begins to use concepts as subjects. Now the child becomes more careful about his statements as the truth-idea begins to be realized. Judgment gradually develops, and in youth seems to reach full activity, though continuing to grow throughout active life.

SUGGESTIVE STUDY-HINTS.

Review. Give your definition and illustration of conception; of concept; of abstraction; of generalization; of definition. What is the material of which we make concepts? concepts? ideals?

What is meant by judgment? Give the distinction between perceptive-knowledge and thought-knowledge. What are our first thought-products? What relations of things enable us to think individuals into groups? into sentences?

Analyze several of your acts of judgment. What do you discern? What relations of notions enable us to think ideas into propositions? Give five examples.

Give the author's definition of judgment; your definition; McCosh's definition; Hamilton's definition. Define a judgment. What are the terms of a judgment? Define and illustrate. Give the properties of a judgment. Define and illustrate.

Out of what are judgments made? What do you call a remembered percept? concept? judgment? How does memory help in judgment? What aid does imagination give?

Does the brute judge? How do you account for the remarkable acts of dogs? foxes? horses? elephants?

What is a necessary judgment? Are axioms necessary judgments? What distinction do you make between a necessary idea and a necessary judgment?

Do we perceive necessary truths in the abstract? Illustrate. Letter. You may now write a letter, giving your friend your views of judgment. Let all the illustrations be yours.

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VIII. Judgment, and other Faculties.

Perception, Conception, and Memory furnish materials.
Reason tests the judgment.

Judgment contributes the truth-element to all knowing.

IX. Comparative Psychology-Brutes not endowed with Judgment.

X. Necessary Judgments.

XI. Growth and Education of Judgment.

CHAPTER XVI.

REASON.

By this is meant our power to reach conclusions. As all intentional violation of law is sin, and as fraud is intentional violation of law, we reach the conclusion that fraud is sin. You reason when you use intelligently such terms as "hence," "therefore,” “because,” etc, You arrive at conclusions through judgments. You so combine two propositions as to discern, or infer, or draw, or reach a conclusion. Your capability to do this is called reason.

Acts of Reason analyzed.—Self, as reason, infers conclusions from premises, and hence is sometimes called the power of inference. Let us examine some easy acts of reason.

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We accept the first and second judgments as true, and through these judgments discern the conclusion.

Self, as reason, discerns conclusions. Change one term,

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Since doves are birds, and birds are vertebrates, we discern the conclusion, doves are vertebrates. So, since z is included in y, and y in x, we discern that z is included in x. We call the act reasoning when we discern conclusions, and we call the power to discern conclusions reason.

Cause-Relations.-Self, as reason, discerns cause-relations. The relations of causes and effects, means and ends, conditions and interdependencies, antecedents and consequents, wholes and parts, proportions and analogies, etc., are discerned through the medium of interlocked judgments. Cause-relations are all-pervading. From the atom to the Infinite First Cause, cause-relations bind together all things. The universe is a causeunit. Reason is our capability to discern cause-relations and cause-unity.

Office of Reason.-Self, as reason, discerns cause-relations. When we discern class-relations, we conceive; when we discern truth-relations, we judge; but, when we discern cause-relations, we reason.

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