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methods of the old psychology and accept the facts of consciousness. We decline to discuss the physical basis of the logical faculties, as there is absolutely no scientific ground on which to base such a discussion. The inability of psychological science to conceive of any physical process which can be correlated with the acts of conceiving, judging, and reasoning, is complete. We are forced to make the same humiliating admission as to memory and imagination and choice and intuition and conscience."*

Reason and Unity.- Infinite Reason planned the universe. Everything, from the atom to a system of worlds, is related by dependencies. Cause and effect, means and ends, antecedents and consequents, unite all into one unity. Endowed with Reason, we can think the thoughts of God after him.

Reason, through interlocked Judgments, discerns cause relations. In its work, Reason lays under contribution all our other capabilities. All are its servants, subject to its supervision. We fashion our percepts-Reason is there; we remember and imagineReason is there; we form judgments-Reason is there; we feel emotions of truth and beauty and duty-Reason is there; we choose and act-behold, Reason is there.

Not to educate Reason is to leave man to grope in a sea of hopeless mystery. To the unthinking, the universe is a maze without a plan, and life is not worth living. As reason grows, all things begin to assume proportion and harmony. Substances, forces, laws, conditions, dependencies; cause, space, duration; rational beings, brutes, plants, worlds; all things fall into rhythm and make for us the music of the spheres.

*Ladd, "Physiological Psychology."

PART V.

THE FEELINGS.

CHAPTER XVIII.-THE INSTINCTS.

XIX.-THE PHYSICAL FEELINGS.-THE APPETITES.

XX. THE EMOTIONS.-EGOISTIC EMOTIONS.
XXI.-THE EMOTIONS.-ALTRUISTIC EMOTIONS.
XXII. THE EMOTIONS.-TRUTH EMOTIONS.
XXIII.-THE EMOTIONS.-ESTHETIC EMOTIONS.
XXIV. THE EMOTIONS.-ETHICAL EMOTIONS.
XXV. THE EMOTIONS.-GENERAL VIEW.

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THE CAPABILITIES OF THE MIND. THE INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES.

THE FEELINGS.

THE APPETITES.

HUMAN INSTINCTS.
COMMON INSTINCTS.

STRICTLY BRUTE INSTINCTS.

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REPRESENT
ATIVE
POWERS.

IMAGINATION. PHANTASY. MEMORY.

IDEALS.

PHANTASMS.

MEMORIES.

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THE PERCEPTIVE POWERS.

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PRODUCTS.

FIFTH PART.

THE FEELINGS.

Feelings are agitations and impulses of the soul. I suffer hunger, I long for wisdom, I sympathize with my bereaved friend, I feel impulses to do what I believe to be right. These agitations and impulses are called feelings, or sensibilities, or susceptibilities.

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A sensibility is a capability for a distinct kind of feeling. The power of thirst is a feeling or sensibility. The agitation and impulse of thirstiness is the activity of the capability to feel thirst. We are endowed with powers to feel, and we exert these powers, or we feel. A feeling implies a power to feel. We have as many sensibilities as we have distinct kinds of feeling. A feeling is usually agreeable or disagreeable; this general characteristic of the feelings will enable you to distinguish feeling from knowing and willing.

We enjoy and suffer. We enjoy sweet music, congenial society, success; but we suffer physical pain, want, disappointment. We discern truth, feel pleasure, and choose safety. We know, feel, and will.

Classes of Feelings.

The Instincts.

The Physical Feelings.
The Emotions.

Feeling is mental agitation and impulse. Some feelings are blind but guiding impulses these we call instincts. Some feelings are occasioned by organic bodily excitations-these we name physical feelings. Some feelings are occasioned by ideas-these we term emotions. This easy classification of the feelings is thought to be exhaustive as well as convenient.

CHAPTER XVIII.

THE INSTINCTS.

By these we mean guiding impulses. All feelings are blind; many feelings move to action; but instincts are the only feelings which guide. The guiding impulses or instincts are clearly a distinct class of feelings. Where intelligence can not act, instinct moves the animal to blindly conform to law. Creative Wisdom has implanted in the animal marvelous energies to adapt means to ends without knowing why. Instinct is adaptative or regulative impulse; it is a blind tendency to wise ends. (The discussion of Instinct [see Chapter II, p. 15] seems to be as full as is desirable in an ele mentary work. A careful examination of the chapter on Instinct will aid the student to master the following chapters.)

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