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should be repressed. Tell what you know about educating the selfemotions.

Letter and Diagram.-You may construct a diagram of the egoistic emotions which you may include in your letter to your friend.

CHAPTER XXI.

THE ALTRUISTIC EMOTIONS.

THESE are feelings ministering to others. Good and evil as bearing on self call forth egoistic emotions; but good and evil as bearing on others call forth altruistic emotions. These feelings are known by these and similar

Names.

Altruistic Emotions.

Sympathies and Antipathies.
Affections and Disaffections.

Benevolent Emotions and Malevolent Emotions.
Loves and Hates.

These expressions apply equally to our capabilities to feel these emotions and to the feelings. I have the power to love and I love my friend. I feel the emotion of pity; I am endowed with the capability to feel pity.

The feelings occasioned by the realization of our relations to other beings are called altruistic emotions. Because we feel for and with others, these emotions are called sympathies. Because we incline to others, these feelings are called affections. Because we wish well to others, these feelings are called benevolent emotions. But we feel antipathies as well as sympathies; we hate as well as love. Altruistic emotion best expresses the

meaning, including feeling against and from others, as well as feeling for and with others; but the other names mentioned are expressive, and are fixed in our litera

ture.

Analysis of Altruistic Emotions.—We notice a young man struggling against poverty and misfortune to educate himself. We feel for and with him, we sympathize with him. We wish him success. We rejoice when he succeeds. The good Samaritan looked upon the unfortunate traveler, robbed and wounded, and ready to die. He pitied him, and this pity moved him to administer to his wants. By analyzing mother-love, friendship, emulation, and similar feelings, you dis

cover the

Office of the Altruistic Emotions.-Self, as love, thinks no evil, suffers long, is kind. A neighbor is sick and needy. Your sympathies move you to cool his aching brow and minister to his needs. To work good to others is the office of the altruistic emotions.

Characteristics of the Altruistic Emotions.-These feelings are occasioned by ideas pertaining to others, and grow out of our relations to other beings.

1. Altruistic emotions look to others. When benevolent, they prompt the good of others; but when perverted, they become malevolent, and work ill to our neighbors.

2. Altruistic emotions are feelings for and with others. My friend is fortunate; I rejoice with her. She is unfortunate; I pity and aid her. The opposite is also true; I may feel against and away from another, as when I envy my successful neighbor, or hate and seek to injure a rival.

3. Altruistic emotions are two-sided. This is true of all emotions, but eminently so of these. Ingratitude is almost as common as gratitude. Hate too often dominates love. Antipathies are almost as wide as sympathies.

Altruistic Emotions Defined.-We feel for or against others. Man is a social being endowed with capabilities to feel emotions that prompt the good of others. The mental agitations and impulses occasioned by a knowledge of our relations to others are called altruistic emotions.

1. Altruistic emotions are capabilities to love or hate others. They are the powers to feel for and with others, or feel from and against others. They are the emotions that minister to others.

2. Original. Work out a good definition. Illus

trate.

3. Various Definitions.-1. SULLY: Altruistic emotion, in its perfect form, is feeling for and with others. 2. McCosн: Altruistic emotions are capabilities to feel an interest in others. 3. BROOKS: Altruistic emotions are feelings which go out to another with a wish of good or evil. 4. WHITE: The powers to feel good or evil toward others are termed altruistic emotions.

Classes of Altruistic Emotions.-The terms expressive of these emotions are marvelously numerous. Charity has more than fifty English synonyms. The few groups of altruistic emotions inserted here will suggest to you the indefinite extension of the list. Clearly, some of these terms are synonyms; but, for the most part, each expresses a distinct shade of feeling. You will find it profitable to linger over these terms, defining and illustrating each from your own experience.

Altruistic
Emotions.

Prospective. {

Immediate.

Retrospective. {

Same as Immediate, but looking to the future.

Love or Hate; Friendship or Enmity; Trust or Jealousy; Sympathy or Antipathy; Good Will or Malice; Pity or Indifference; Admiration or Envy; Adoration or Blasphemy; Reverence or Scorn. Etc., etc.

Loving or Loathing; Interest or Indifference; Kindness or Unkindness; Gratitude or Ingratitude; Philanthropy or Misanthropy; Mercy or Cruelty; Good Humor or Anger; Honor or Shame. Etc., etc.

Same as Immediate, but looking to the past.

Love. The soul-energy that draws hearts together is called love. The lovely awakens love. We love the lovely. We can not love the hateful.

1. Supreme love. God is love and He is altogether lovely. Infinite loveliness awakens our souls to their deepest depths. I love the loving Father with all my heart. Veneration, reverence, worship, grow out of supreme love. Love tends to union. What attraction is to the physical universe, love is to the spiritual universe. The one unitizes the world of matter; the other the world of mind.

2. Parental love. This is one of the purest and noblest of feelings. It unitizes the family, and works the highest good to offspring. Mother-love is the salt of the earth.

3. Conjugal love. An absorbing reciprocal affection makes of two lives one. Each family, united by love, becomes a paradise. Happiness comes from a union of hearts and a union of lives.

4. Filial love. Loving and loved, children cheerfully yield to parental authority and counsel, and grow into lovely and loving men and women.

5. Fraternal love. The offspring of the same parents are bound together by strong ties. As the race is one great family, the realiza

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tion of the brotherhood of man and fatherhood of God leads to a higher exercise of filial and parental love.

6. Love of friends. He is the friend indeed who sticketh closer than a brother. The love between David and Jonathan, and between Damon and Pythias, surpassed the love between men and women. Friendship is an ennobling emotion. A man who is true to his friends, though a robber, is capable of great things. True friendship never dies.

7. Love of country. Love is the tie that binds together rational beings. We degrade this noble emotion when we call the instinctive affection of brutes, love; and much more when we term the brutal lusts of men love. But patriotism may well be called the love of country.

Sympathies.-Fellow-feelings, or feelings for and with our fellow-beings, are called sympathies. Sympathies bind social beings together. Our impulses to do good to others spring from our sympathies.

1. Growth of sympathies. Capabilities to feel, like capabilities to know, are endowments. Man is endowed with altruistic emotions, called fellow-feelings or sympathies. Very early the child laughs with those who laugh, and weeps with those who weep. Children respond to the emotions of their companions. Later, the youth represents to himself the joys and sorrows of others and sympathizes with them. When we can enter into another's inmost heart and feel for and with him, our sympathies are fully active.

2. Analysis of acts of sympathy. Jesus at the grave of Lazarus is a perfect example. Study the details. In this, as in all acts of sympathy, the mental process seems to be as follows: (1) Observation is the first step. We must know the joys and sorrows of others. We must note the facial and vocal expression of emotion. (2) Interpretation of the signs of emotion is the second step. We recall our emotional experience. I have lost a parent. I can sympathize with my bereaved friend. (3) Imagination is the third step. I make real the peculiar disposition and circumstances of my friend and put myself in his place, and thus enable myself to fully share his joys or This is sympathy. Next to love, sympathy best expresses benevolent altruistic emotion.

sorrows.

3. Suffering and Sympathy-It is only through our personal ex

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