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should never be

periences that we gain the power of sympathizing with others. We able to feel another's pain, if we had never felt a pain of our own. So it is in all the trials of our fellows; before we can enter into the feelings of one who is tempted, or who is disappointed, or who is humiliated, or who is bereaved, we must ourselves suffer-being tempted, or being disappointed, or being humiliated, or being bereaved. It is hard to have these trials for ourselves; but it is good for others that we have and exercise sympathy with those who are called to such trials for themselves. And, as we can never gain this power except through these trials, let us find a comfort in the thought that every trial sent to us is a call to added fitness in the all-important ministry of loving sympathy.

Hates, Antipathies, Malevolent Emotions. We may abhor sin and hate every evil way; but when our hearts become bitter, and we would work the injury of others, our emotions are malevolent. These ugly emotions take many forms. Now anger, now spite, now malice, now revenge, now jealousy, but always hate. These hateful emotions drive social beings apart and fill the cup of misery. The less we have to do with them the better. While hating sin with a perfect hatred, we may love sinners and seek to save them. Malevolence in all its forms is perverted and misdirected emotion. Malevolent emotions are perverted feelings; they are not endowments but perversions. "God made man upright." "The emotions are all good in themselves, and are not to be eradicated but guided."

Play of the Emotions.-More wonderful than the combinations in music are the play and interplay of the emotions. The heart is truly an instrument of a thousand strings. The key-board embraces many octaves. When attuned to harmony, its music is sweeter than the music of the spheres. Love fills the soul with bliss and inspires every noble endeavor.

Egoistic and Altruistic Emotions, incident to Success or Failure. The thoughtful student will linger long over the following diagram, given by Dr. Bascom. You may here get a clearer insight into the emotion world than by reading volumes of theory. Look into the mirror of consciousness and see yourself in each emotion. With the diagram before you, rehearse your greatest success as well as your greatest failure. Tell the emo

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tions you felt in each case. Now take Washington at the close of the Revolution, and Napoleon in his last imprisonment. Tell the emotions you imagine that each felt.


State its office; its charac

Review.-Define consciousness. teristics. What is a conscious - percept? Name five. Give the distinction between physical feelings and instincts; between the physical feelings and the emotions. Give the definition, office, and characteristics of the egoistic emotions. Define and illustrate retrospective, immediate, and prospective emotions.

What do you mean by altruistic emotion? Give the etymology of the word. Why are these feelings called sympathies? affections? benevolent emotions? love? Why are they also called antipathies? disaffections? malevolent emotions? hates? Give examples of each from your own experience.

What is the office of the altruistic emotions? Give the three characteristics of these emotions.


State the author's definition of the altruistic emotions; your definition; the definition of Dr. Brooks.

Give ten groups of altruistic emotions. Illustrate. Give ten synonyms of charity.

Explain the seven kinds of love mentioned. Explain the meaning of sympathy. Illustrate by Jesus at the grave of Lazarus.

What do you mean by malevolent emotions? Give some of these. Are these original endowments or perversions?

Tell about the play and interplay of the emotions. When is there harmony? when discord?

Incident to

Give some egoistic emotions incident to success. failure. Give some altruistic emotions incident to success. Incident to failure.

When is a feeling called a passion? What is meant by the passion for strong drink? by the passion of anger? by the passion of love? by the passion of avarice? by the passion of ambition? What do you understand by the ruling passion?

Letter. In a thoughtful letter you will tell about these ennobling emotions. Inclose to your friend an analysis of this chapter.



By cosmic emotions we mean the feelings occasioned by ideas of the true, the beautiful, and the good. The reign of law, the beauty of earth and sky, and the all-pervading good, fill me with a boundless joy. Egoistic emotions terminate in self; altruistic emotions terminate in others; but cosmic emotions are boundless. The Cosmic Emotions.

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Because these feelings belong peculiarly to higher nature, they are called spiritual emotions. Because only rational beings are endowed with these capabilities, the powers to feel in view of cosmic ideas are called rational emotions. Because the soul goes out to the universe in the feelings occasioned by the true and the beautiful and the good, they are called cosmic emotions.

Cosmic Emotions

Truth Emotions, or Knowledge Emotions.
Esthetical Emotions, or Beauty Emotions.
Ethical Emotions, or Duty Emotions.

We are a part of a universe of related things, and we are endowed with powers to perceive things and discern relations. As one by one they open to our view, great truths thrill us. The feelings awakened by

*Review Chapter XV before studying this chapter.

truth are called truth emotions. We look without and within; beauty charms us. The feelings occasioned by beauty are called beauty emotions. We find out our relations to others; we feel imperative impulses to do to others as we would have them do to us. These feelings are occasioned by ideas of right, and are called duty emotions.


By these we mean our capabilities to feel, in view of truth discerned. These feelings are known by the following

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Because these emotions are occasioned by the discernment of relations, they are termed philosophic emotions; as they well up, in view of knowledge gained, they are termed knowledge emotions.

Analysis of Truth Emotions. Archimedes had studied long and hard to find the law of specific gravity. While bathing, the happy thought struck him. He ran out without his clothes, shouting "Eureka! Eureka! I have found it! I have found it!" He discovered an important truth which occasioned ecstatic truth emotions. Give examples from your own experience.

Office of Truth Emotions. Truth is the food of the soul. The discovery of truth occasions much of our deepest joy.

1. Truth emotions move us to search for truth as for hidden treasures. A thirst for knowledge is deeply impressed upon our nature.

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