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The altruistic emotions are powers to feel in view of others. The feelings occasioned by ideas pertaining to others are termed altruistic emotions. When we feel for and with others, these feelings are called sympathies, affections, benevolent emotions, love, etc.; but when we feel away from and against others, they are termed antipathies, disaffections, malevolent emotions, hate, etc.

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The cosmic emotions are our powers to feel in view of the true, the beautiful, and the good. These feelings are termed cosmic emotions. Because they are limited to rational beings, they are named rational emotions. As they are occasioned primarily by noumenal percepts, they may be called noumenal emotions. Some name these feelings spiritual emotions and higher emotions, because of their tendency to exalt the soul. Self as cosmic emotion goes out to the universe. These feelings are as boundless as the universe and eternity. Cosmic emotion seems to express the exact meaning.

Names.

The Cosmic Emotions.
The Rational Emotions.

The Spiritual Emotions.
The Noumenal Emotions.
The Higher Emotions.

Retrospective.

Immediate.

Prospective.

The cosmic emotions are occasioned by cosmic knowing. Self, as noumenal-perception, has immediate in

sight into the truth world, the beauty world, and the duty world. We know intuitively, in their concrete forms, the true, the beautiful, and the good. But self as reason finds out what is true, what is beautiful, what is right. In the presence of truth we feel truth emotions. In the presence of beauty we feel beauty emotions. In the presence of right we feel duty emotions. The Knowledge Emotions, or Truth Emotions. The Esthetic Emotions, or Beauty Emotions. The Ethical Emotions, or Duty Emotions.

The Cosmic Emotions.

Physiology of the emotions. The soul is embodied in an organism. The interaction between mind and body is wonderful. Study that expressive face under the play of diverse emotions. How joy lights up the countenance! How grief drapes the face in gloom.

"When ideas are of objects appetible or inappetible they stir up emotion. We have a glimpse of the way in which the feelings work in the brain. The idea which evokes the feeling, and is its substratum, works in the cerebrum; and the excitement produced, like the original sensation, may be partly mental and partly bodily—the bodily excitement often rising to movements in changes of color, in paleness and redness of countenance, in blushing and in trembling, in laughter and in tears. It is the office of psychology to unfold the emotions; it is the business of physiology to trace the bodily affections from the brain downward to the nerves and fibers." *

The Human Temperaments." The temperaments are formed by the proportion of those elements that enter into the bodily structure, causing the diversities in shape, form, and mental characteristics that we observe; and whether we employ the words 'lymphatic, sanguine, bilious, and nervous,' or 'vital, motive, and mental,' to denote the bodily constitution of individuals, these terms correspond

* McCosh.

+ Superintendent J. M. Greenwood in "Principles of Education Practically Applied."

to those real distinctions which prompt the possessor to move or act in a certain direction. The mind is a unit; it manifests its activity in various directions. A distinct kind of mind activity is called a faculty of the mind; consequently, there are as many faculties of the mind as it has distinct kinds of activity. In like manner, the body is one organism, constructed upon temperamental conditions. The manner of their combination produces tendencies either to mental activity or to sluggishness, causing all those variations in human nature that we observe. When the intellect, sensibility, or will prevails, there is found a corresponding temperamental development which exerts a controlling influence, and shapes and colors the whole character of the possessor. He lives and acts in harmony with his nature. Teachers furnished with eyes, ears, good sense, and an inclination to study, can tell what tendencies prevail in the pupils they are called upon to teach. This is justly regarded as the key to eminent success."

SUGGESTIVE STUDY-HINTS.

Review. Study this chapter with the tree (p. 56), and the pyramid (p. 204), and the diagrams of the egoistic, altruistic, and cosmic emotions before you.

What distinction do you make between knowing and feeling? between an intellectual power and an emotion? Illustrate. Explain the logical order of mental activity. Do we feel while we know? Do we will while we feel?

Define the emotions. Explain the names given to these capabilities. Why do you prefer the term emotion?

Explain the classification of emotions. Illustrate retrospective, immediate, and prospective emotions. Define the egoistic emotions. Explain the several names applied to these feelings. Are these names equally expressive?

Define the altruistic emotions. Explain the various names given to these feelings, and state your preference.

Define the cosmic emotions. Why do you prefer this to the other names applied to these feelings? Name the groups of cosmic emotions. Define each. What do you mean by cosmic knowledge? Illustrate the physiology of the emotions. What is the office of psychology of physiology?

PART VI.

THE WILL-POWERS.

CHAPTER XXVI.-ATTENTION.

XXVII.-ACTION.

XXVIII.-CHOICE.

XXIX. THE WILL-POWERS.-GENERAL VIEW.

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