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THE CAPABILITIES OF THE MIND. THE INTELLECTUAL FACULTIES.

THE FEELINGS.

THE APPETITES.

HUMAN INSTINCTS.
COMMON INSTINCTS.

STRICTLY BRUTE INSTINCTS.

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REPRESENT
ATIVE
POWERS.

IMAGINATION. PHANTASY. MEMORY.

IDEALS.

PHANTASMS.

MEMORIES.

NOUMENAL

NOUMENAL-PERCEPTION.

PERCEPTS.

THE PERCEPTIVE POWERS.

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PRODUCTS.

SIXTH PART.

THE WILL-POWERS.

By these we mean our capabilities to attend, determine, and act. Will is the power to make intentional efforts. Knowing, feeling, willing is the logical order of soul activity; hence we place at the summit of the psychological pyramid the will-powers.

8. THE WILL-POWERS.

2. THE EMOTIONS.

1. THE COGNITIVE POWERS.

Knowing occasions emotion; emotion occasions choice and action. The telegram states that your brother is dying; you are grieved to the heart; you hasten to soothe him in his dying hour.

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You concentrate your powers on the geometry lesson; self, as attention, concentrates his efforts. You determine to spend vacation in California; self, as choice, determines. You execute your plan; self, as

action, executes his determinations. Because choice is the pre-eminent will-power, we place it as the cap-stone of the psychological pyramid.

Will, Emotion, Intellect.-Will is mind in liberty. Voluntary acts are intentional acts. We are endowed with capabilities to form and execute plans. Liberty, intention, and volition are the characteristics of will, and distinguish the will-powers from the emotions and the intellect.

CHAPTER XXVI.

ATTENTION.*

By attention is meant the power to concentrate our efforts. Self, as attention, concentrates his efforts, prolongs his efforts, and changes his efforts. Like consciousness and memory, attention in some degree enters into all distinct mental activity. What the will can do is to fix the attention.

1. Self, as attention, concentrates effort.—As we can, under an adequate motive, observe one point in the scene before us and neglect everything else; as we can single out one sound and be deaf to the general hum; as we can apply ourselves to the appreciation of one flavor in the midst of many, or be aware of a pressure on a particular part of the body to the neglect of the rest—so in mental attention we can fix one idea firmly in the view, while others are coming and going unheeded.

2. Attention is characteristic of cultivated minds. In the uneducated and badly educated it is more or less wanting. The power of giving the whole of the mind to any subject or work, what

* Re-examine Chapter I; also, see "Education of Attention," "Applied Psychology."

ever be its nature, without permitting it to wander, is not common, and where it does exist it is usually the result of severe discipline. The mind, while it is the most active agent with which we are acquainted, is also one of the laziest. Not lazy through idleness, but because it shirks. It loves to remember, for remembering is not work. It loves to form phantasms, for phantasy is sport, day-dreaming is pleasant. It loves reverie. It does not love to think, for thinking is work. Whoever has taught children and observed their ways closely has a thousand proofs of this. Place a spelling-book in the hand of a little boy and watch him. Nine times out of ten he will try to learn his task by going over it a great many times. The mind is shirking, for the mind does not work that way. It is his mental effort to get the lesson without fixing his whole attention. He is trying to substitute a great deal of mechanical repetition for a little hearty mental labor. The whole power of his mind is never absorbed in his task. When the mind is fully at work, when the whole power of attention is aroused, it always does one thing at a time. This is a foundation or beginning principle in education.

3. Much novel-reading is mental shirking. This is true as a rule. The novel-reader drifts, not thinking or even imagining; self seems to be little more than emotion and phantasy. An excessive novel-reader becomes incapable of concentrated and prolonged effort. Though a woman in years, she may be a child mentally. Only the concrete and emotional interest her. She is incapable of solid reading, or penetrating, abstract study. She is a human butterfly.

4. Attention can be educated. Education must accustom the learner to an exact, rapid, and many-sided attention, so that at the first contact with an object he may grasp it sufficiently and truly, and that it shall not be necessary for him always to be changing his impressions concerning it. (The treatment of Attention in Chapter I is considered sufficiently extended for an elementary work.

CHAPTER XXVII.

ACTION, OR EXECUTIVE VOLITION.

Self does things-acts. Action engages full half our mental energies. Self, as action, executes his determinations, and thus makes ideals actuals. The capability to carry impulse or determination into action is called executive volition, or action. In general, action includes all efforts of body and soul; but the term is here used in the sense of executive volition. Action is the power of self to execute his determinations.

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Acts of Executive Volition analyzed.-Charles, on his way to school, met Robert, who begged for his company for a hunt. Charles desired to enjoy the sport, and his impulse was to go; but he deliberated, weighing the pleasures of the hunt against the benefits of the school, and the painful consequences of playing truant. After a few moments he decided to go on to school. Without a moment's delay, he acted-executed his choice-and proceeded on his way to

school.

I know that my neighbor is in need. Shall I administer to his wants? I fix my mind upon the question-I attend. Indifference and avarice move me to leave the matter to others. The grudge I have against the needy one moves me to let him suffer. Conscience strongly moves me to go to his relief. In view of these conflicting urgings, I make up my mind to help my neighbor-I choose. I now direct my efforts to devising ways and means to execute my determination and form a plan. Next I execute my plan, administering to my neighbor's wants-I act. You readily perceive in these simple acts the distinctive work of each of the three will-powers.

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