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Action gives pleasure. "Education by doing" is based on the intense activity of this faculty during childhood and youth.

Education of Action.*-Intentional effort tends to develop executive volition. The child is full of impulses to action, but these efforts need to be directed. Well guided action is an important feature of child education,


Review. Carefully ascend the pyramid. Define each group of faculties and state the office of each faculty in the group. Define each faculty and give its characteristics.

What do we mean by the will-powers? Distinguish between intellect, emotion, and will. Illustrate.

What is meant by attention? Give its office and its characteristics. Illustrate the importance of educating attention.

What do we mean by action? Why is this power called executive volition Analyze a voluntary act.

Give the office of action.

Illustrate the distinction between

impulsive acts and determined acts.

State the characteristics of action. What do you mean by intentional action?


Give author's definition of action; your definition; Hazard's; Bain's.

Explain and illustrate reflex action; impulsive action; rational action. In what sense is action here used?

Show that the soul as will originates motion. Trace motion from the inner to the outer world. Explain the motorium (see p. 45).

What is language? How do we express our thoughts? our emotions? our resolves? What proportion of our movements is reflex action?

Explain habit and action. Describe the growth of action. How are motives related to rational action?

Letter. You will take time to prepare a well-digested letter to your friend.

* See "Education of Action," "Applied Psychology."

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By this is meant the power of preference. Shall I spend my vacation in Europe or in the Yellowstone Park? After long deliberation I finally make up my mind to go to Europe. I prefer visiting the Old

World. I choose in view of motives. I determine to spend my vacation in a foreign land.

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I am rational, benevolent, free; I am a person. am endowed with the power of self-determination; I am a sovereign. I can prefer one thing to another; I am free to choose. I determine for myself; I am independent. I originate activity; I am a creative first Because I am endowed with the capability to choose, I am a man and not a brute. Because I can at will originate motion, I can understand the universe.


Acts of Choice Analyzed.-What is choosing? You carefully scrutinize some of your own acts of choice. What mental processes precede choice? What follow choice? What do you do when you choose? Now take this example: Moses chose to suffer with his people rather than be king. Ambition and pleasure contended with duty, but Moses did not hesitate. With him right outweighed kingdoms. He made up his mind to cast in his lot with his enslaved people. He preferred duty to pleasure. He chose to suffer for the right rather than rule in the wrong. You find that his choice was occasioned by motives or reasons for choosing. You find that his determination to stand by his people was his choice. You also find that his choice was followed by action-a life devoted to the good of his people. You will be profited by analyzing the choice of Solomon, of Naomi, etc.

Office of Choice.-In the mental economy, self, as

choice, decides. The power of self-determination is the master faculty of the soul. You make up your mind, you determine, you choose.

1. Self, as choice, determines. Washington made up his mind to propose to Mrs. Custis, and she made up her mind to accept him. Making up your mind, deciding, determining, and choosing, are expressions for the same mental act.

2. Self, as choice, originates activity. You determine to take a walk. Your choice starts nerve-currents which incite muscular action. Napoleon chose to stake his fate upon a single battle, and many thousand soldiers fought at Waterloo.

3. Self, as choice, prefers. Clay preferred being right to being President. You prefer education to riches. The patriot exclaims, "Give me liberty, or give me death." Choice is the power of preference.

Characteristics of Choice.-We find nothing in the material world with which to compare this activity. Matter is passive; only mind is endowed with spontaneity. Choice stands alone, and man is the only terrestrial being that can say "I will.”

1. Choice is uncaused cause. The choice is made in view of motives, but the motive is the reason for choosing, and not the cause of the choice. I determine to build a house; the choice is the cause of the building, but the determination to build is occasioned and not caused. The power to originate movement is called choice or will. Take away this power, and a man ceases to be a person and becomes a mere machine.

2. Avoidability characterizes choice. The thief takes my horse, but he could have done differently.

Whatever choice I make, I am conscious that I could have chosen otherwise. Avoidability characterizes choice. I am responsible.

3. Self is free to choose. Choice is mind in liberty. It is the power to determine as one pleases. Liberty is a necessary idea. I know intuitively that I am free. Self, as choice, is unrestrained.

Choice Defined." Choice is the power of self to decide what he will do." "Choice is the capability to initiate acts." "Choice is the power of preference in view of motives." "Choice is the power of spontaneous determination." "Choice is mind in liberty." "Choice is personal cause." "Choice is the capability to elect one of two or more alternatives." Here we find substantial agreement. Whatever their theories, thinkers agree as to the office of choice, and view with awe this marvelous power. All men know what it means, yet here we meet the profoundest of mysteries: man is a creative first cause.

1. Choice is the power to determine in view of mo


2. Original. Construct a definition of your own.

3. Various Definitions.-1. HARRIS: Choice is the power of selfdetermination. 2. BAIN: Choice is the capability to decide. 3. BASCOM: Choice is the power to close deliberation and initiate action. 4. HAZARD: Choice is the mental energy that originates motion.

Motives occasion Choice.-Motives are incentives to choice. Ambition incited Macbeth to murder. Motives are mere considerations, and may be intensified or weakened at will. A strong motive is simply a powerful incentive to choice. A weak motive is merely a slight incentive to choice. The soul, as choice, is sov

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