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3. Determined action. After two or three years of effort, the child gets command of itself. It walks, it runs, it talks. Its acts are now voluntary. But action still follows, for the most part, from impulse. Now the child begins to consider before yielding to impulse. Mollie hesitates to go with Willie, because ma will not like it, and at last she chooses not to go. From these almost imperceptible beginnings, the power to determine in view of motives and to adhere to plans, steadily grows. Growth makes the difference between the impulsive and pliant child and the man of iron will.

Education of Choice.*" What you achieve is simply a question of will." The men and women of great willpower move and rule the world. The soft and pliant Damocles, the wishy-washy thing, and the vacillating creature with no mind of his own, are the ciphers of society. Decision of character is the basis of a grand manhood. The superior man chooses for himself, forms his own plans, and changes not, except for sufficient reason. Development of choice calls into activity all the faculties, gives decision of character, and tends to a grand manhood.

Comparative Psychology.-Instinct and perceptive intelligence guide brute action. Brutes do not deliberate. Impulse becomes action. Brutes are not endowed with the power of rational choice, and hence are not moral beings. As brutes are destitute of the power of choice, they are not responsible. Brute impulse dominates brute action; hence, merit and demerit do not apply to brute actions.

*See "Education of Choice," "Applied Psychology."

SUGGESTIVE STUDY-HINTS.

Review. You may now ascend the psychological pyramid to the summit. Show that each faculty is merely a distinct capability of self. Show that the soul is a unit in action. What is meant by a mental power? What do you mean by the will-powers? Explain the other names.

What do you mean by the power of choice? Give the names designating this power, and tell why each is used.

Analyze one of your acts of choice. What precedes rational choice what follows? What do you do when you choose?

Give the first characteristic of choice; second; third. Illustrate each.

What is the office of choice? Give the first example; the second; the third.

Give the author's definition of choice; give your definition; give the definitions of several authors.

What do you mean by a motive? a high motive? a low motive? Explain the difference between causing choice and occasioning choice. Illustrate.

What are the antecedents of rational choice? consequents? Illustrate.

Show that self, as choice, originates motion; dominates the body. Why are we able to apprehend infinite will?

What is law a law of nature a human law? How are choice and law related?

Is the brute endowed with rational choice? Are brutes moral beings? Why?

What is fatalism? Give the line of argument. Give the conclusion.

What is liberty? Give the line of argument. Give the conclusion. What is an atheist? a theist an agnostic!

Tell about the growth of choice. About what age is purposed action first clearly indicated? How early does the child deliberate ? At what age does choice become intentional action?

How is choice developed? What do you mean by decision of character?

Letter. You have a grand theme for your last psychological letter. Lead your friend to grasp fully the idea that he is endowed with the power of self-determination, that he is free and responsible.

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Sin, intentional violation of law.
Only rational beings can sin.

XII. Fatalism-Choice is caused.

1. Sensations cause perception. 2. Emotions cause choosing.
3. We can not avoid choosing. 4. Man is an automaton.
5. There is no God.

XIII. Liberty-Choice is causa sui.

1. Consciousness attests liberty. 2. Literature attests liberty.
3. Law is based on liberty.
5. Choice, uncaused cause.

XIV. Growth of Choice.

Reflex action and volition.
Determined action.

XV. Education of Choice.
Importance.

4. Liberty a necessary idea.

6. There is a God.

Impulsive action.

Time.

Method.

CHAPTER XXIX.

THE WILL-POWERS-GENERAL VIEW.

Will is Self-Willing.-Our will-powers are our capabilities of self-direction, self-determination, and selfaction. Because will is mind in liberty, these are called the voluntary powers; because determination leads on to action, these are called the active powers.

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Intellect, Emotion, Will.-Step by step we have ascended the psychological pyramid. At its summit we find the will-powers. Choice is the cap-stone. Our voluntary powers, we discover, are simple, as compared with our cognitive powers or our emotions. Of our mental energies, we find our emotions by far the most numerous, complex, and varied. Our intellectual facul

ties are relatively few, yet exceedingly subtile in their interdependence and action. Our voluntary powers are yet more simple, and offer their chief difficulty in the problem of liberty.

As possessed of intellect alone, we have represented man by one line; as possessed of intellect and sensibility, we have represented him by two lines; and we now represent him as possessed of intellect, sensibility, and will by three lines, united thus:

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Without intellect, there are no ideas, and therefore no emotions; without emotion, there is no motive; without motive, there is no choice; without choice, there is no rational action.*

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Attention is the self-directing power of the mind; volition is the self-acting power of the mind; choice is the self-determining power of the mind. As attention, self concentrates his efforts; as choice, self decides; as action, self executes his decisions.

Will is Self. -"We have now finished our study of the various factors of the self. It is now necessary very briefly to notice their relation to each other. The unity of the self is the will. The will

* Dr. Mark Hopkins.

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