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The Unconscious conditions the Conscious.-" Physiological psychology starts with physiological facts and seeks to discover the psychological facts which are connected with them. It begins without and seeks to penetrate within by varying the external conditions of internal phenomena. A mind is a thing that reasons. A faculty is a distinct mode of psychical activity. Consciousness is the faculty of internal vision, and the point of clear consciousness may be called ap-perception. Ap-perception, or the consciousness of perceiving external objects, takes place in the frontal regions of the brain. Ap-perception is the internal activity that unitizes our experiences. But the agent that is conscious knows only results worked out in the unknown laboratory of the unconscious. In the hidden foundations and springs of mental life take place the important mental operations which fit things to appear in the field of consciousness. The conscious is always conditioned upon the unconscious."

Self-Consciousness and Physiological Psychology.—" Phenomena," says Lotze, "imply things which appear and a self-conscious being to whom they appear. The unitizing function of consciousness is an incontrovertible fact, absolutely inexplicable on any physiological hypotheses." "The scope of physiological psychology is necessarily limited to bodily functions and the physical concomitants of mental actions." "A psychology without a soul," at its best, has "the brain secreting thought just as the liver secretes bile." From this standpoint, the existence of a self-conscious soul is a metaphysical assumption, and self-activity is inconceivable. Man is merely a mechanism, and mind a mode of motion.

The Inner-Sense.-"We have the power," says President Hopkins, “of knowing immediately the processes and products of our own minds. Through this we not only know ourselves but also our fellow-men. That this knowledge is immediate all agree. Innersense is the best name for this power, as it corresponds with outersense. But, call this power what you may, we have revealed through it an inner world more wonderful even than that which is withouta world of intelligence, of comprehension, of feeling, of will, of personality, and of moral instead of physical law. It is a world whose phenomena we can study and arrange as we do those of the external world; but, as in the external world, the phenomena themselves must be immediately given. We must in some way intuitively and necessarily know them to be."

SUGGESTIVE STUDY-HINTS.

Review.-Write out a topical analysis of sense-perception. Discuss by topics. How do messages pass between the outer and the inner world? Define mind, faculty, sense-perception. Etc.

What is meant by consciousness? Tell what comes to us from the wonder-world around us? What do you mean by the inner world?

What power enables us to look directly into the inner world? Explain the meaning of each name given to this faculty. Which name do you prefer? Why?

Analyze two of your acts of consciousness. Give the three great facts you discover. Look once more. Are you conscious of abstract sadness, or of self feeling sad? What do you mean by self-consciousness? What will you call the ideas you gain through consciousness?

Give the office of consciousness.

What does self perceive? What does self do with his experiences? Illustrate by the connective tissue.

each.

Name the four characteristics of consciousness. Explain

Give the author's definition of consciousness; your definition ; McCosh's definition; Wundt's definition.

Define conscious-percepts. Give the marks of a conscious-percept. Give the distinction between a conscious-percept and a sensepercept. Illustrate.

State as clearly as you can the distinctions between attention, consciousness, and memory.

Trace the growth of consciousness. Mention some of the difficulties in studying mental phenomena.

What do you mean by clear consciousness? by sub-consciousness? by unconsciousness? What does Fiske say about unconscious cerebration? What does McCosh say about unconscious mental action? What does Wundt say about the unconscious? What do you say?

Letter. You may make a neat analysis of Chapter VII, and include it in your letter to your friend. It will pay you to "hasten leisurely" here. Put in your letter what you perceive about yourself. Mastery here means victory all along the line.

TOPICAL ANALYSIS OF CHAPTER VII.-SELF

1. Two Worlds.

CONSCIOUSNESS.

Matter-world-Sense-perception.
Mind-world-Conscious-perception.

II. Names.

Conscious-perception, or conscious-intuition, etc.

III. Analysis of Acts of Consciousness.

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Brutes are not self-conscious. Man is self-conscious.

XII. Degrees of Consciousness.

Clear self-consciousness.

Obscure consciousness.

XIII. Unconscious Cerebration.

Unconsciousness.

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CHAPTER VIII.

NOUMENAL-PERCEPTION, OR NOUMENAL-INTUITION.

By this is meant our power to perceive necessary realities. The soul is endowed with the capability to know directly and immediately necessary realities. Our elementary notions of the realities that underlie phenomena are called necessary ideas.

PERCEPTIVE KNOWING.

3. Noumena.

NOUMENAL-PERCEPTION-NOUMENAL-PERCEPTS.

2. Mental Phenomena.

CONSCIOUS-PERCEPTION-CONSCIOUS-PERCEPTS.

1. Physical Phenomena.

SENSE-PERCEPTION-SENSE-PERCEPTS.

We find ourselves endowed with three perceptive faculties giving us direct insight into the three elementary worlds. Sense-perception and consciousness are our powers to gain immediate knowledge of the two phenomenal worlds. Noumenal-perception is our power to intuitively behold the noumenal world. This power is known by the following and still other

Names.

Noumenal-Perception.

Noumenal-Intuition, or Intuition.
Rational-Perception, or Reason.

Truth-Perception, or Common-Sense.

Noumena and Phenomena.-Gold is yellow, malleable, ductile; yellow, malleable, ductile, etc., are phenomena, but the enduring substance of which we affirm the phenomena is called noumenon. I think; thinking is phenomena, but the enduring self who thinks is called a noumenon. (Noeo, I perceive; nous, the mind; noumenon, the very essence, the enduring entity, the necessary.) Noumena, the plural, is now used to include necessary entities and necessary relations, as matter, mind, space, time, causation, existence, right, beauty, resemblance, truth, number, and infinity. The necessary realities that underlie and condition phenomena, and endure unchanged through all change, are termed noumena. Because we can find no better expression, we call the power to perceive these realities noumenalperception or noumenal-intuition. Our concrete notions of these realities are termed necessary ideas, or noumenal-percepts.

Necessary Ideas.-The table is here and the stove is there. What is this in which things exist? The child answers, "It's where things are." The philosopher calls it space. In order that things may be, space must be. Space is a necessary reality. Space endures -is noumenon and not phenomenon. Take this bar of iron. I find that it possesses the phenomena of extension, divisibility, weight, porosity, compressibility, elasticity. That these properties or phenomena may be, a substance possessing these properties must be. Material substance is a necessary reality underlying physical phenomena. Material substance endures, is noumenon, and not phenomenon. In the same way we find that mind, time, cause, etc., are noumena and not phenom

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