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steam-power existing in many asylums, there can be no difficulty as to converting the corn into flour; and provision for doing this has actually been made at the Wilts County Asylum.

Similar arguments may be employed in favour of the introduction of grazing, and the production of the whole or part of the meat required for the use of the establishment. I will not, however, pursue this subject further, but will merely observe, that in order for the system to answer in an economic point of view, it supposes the employment of able and conscientious

Acres of Land in

officers, and the surveillance of an active and intelligent committee.*

Though out-door pursuits must be admitted as being in all respects more salutary than those of a sedentary and mechanical nature, yet there can be no doubt that in manufacturing districts, it is desirable to provide for the occupation of the inmates of an asylum, by the erection of looms and workshops, which to some extent at least may obviate the necessity for the provision of so large a farm. This, however, is a question which must be dealt with on its own merits in each individual case.

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East (Prestwich)

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West (Rainhill)

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15 Leicester and Rutland

16 Lincoln

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0 An approximative estimate. B.F.Matthews 53 a 2r 29 p are occupied by farm buildings and ornamental grounds. The purchase of 6 additional acres is contemplated. T. Green Including roads and outbuildings. J. M. Miller Difficult to procure more land in the neighbourhood. A.E.Slater

20 0 0 76 0 0 24 0 0 17 3 35

24 0 0


6 a purchased June 1852. D.F.Tyerman Chiefly occupied for walks & grounds. G.T.Jones Appropriation not finally determined. J.Hitchman More land felt to be desirable. J.C. Bucknill Of the whole, 12 a obtained on lease within the last three years. J.H.B.Sandon

Difficult to procure more land from vicinity to city. W. W. Williams

25 a added about 4 years since. J.E.Huxley

Of these about 4 are occupied by plantations & reservoir. 33a purchased in '44. J. Broadhurst 7th Ann. Report of Commissioners in Lunacy 49 0 0 T. Eccleston 30 0 0 H. F. Prosser 044 3 13

15 0 0
80 0 20 0 0
20 0
61 26 20 0 0 10 0 0

118 3 35

As proposed. Exact appropriation not yet decided. E. Palmer

The appropriation not yet determined. An additional purchase since May. W.C.Hood 30 a purchased in 1845-6. W. Denne This will probably be modified. J.S.Allen

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11 0 0

36 0 0

Of these 6a formed a second purchase. E.Owen About 9 a not occupied. P.R.Nesbit

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About 12 a purchased this year. J.S. Alderson 21 0 0 A few of these were a second purchase. W.Ley

15 0 29 R. Oliver

47 0 0 Appropriation not entirely determined. R.Boyd 114 0 0 Approximative. *58 a in wood, &c. F.J.Ferguson 44 0 0 J. Wilkes 30 2 5 J. Kirkman 97 0 0 42 00 45 1 19

7a of these orchard,shrubbery, &c.W.H.Diamond Appropriation not yet determined. W.H.Parsey Of this quantity 3 a 3 r are in wood, plantation, &c. J.Thurnam.

45 3 3 7th Ann. Report of Commissioners in Lunacy 88 0 0 Of these 43a Or 2p were added this year. S.T.Hill 46 2 0 C. C. Corsellis

[The above Returns were obtained before the publication of the Commissioners' Seventh Report, which does not supersede their utility, inasmuch as the latter document records the total acreage and the quantity of garden ground only and does not notice the acreage applied to agricultural purposes.]

On Monomania, in a Psychological and Legal Point of intended to imply a single delusion, a madness re-
View, by DR. DELASIAUVE, Physician of the Bicêtre. stricted to one erroneous impression, but to represent
Abridged from the Annales Medico-Psychologiques, a condition corresponding to a passion, to a sentiment,
July, 1853, by J. T. ARLIDGE, ESQ., M.B., Lond,
late Medical Officer to St. Luke's.

The mental aberration, known as monomania, was recognised by the ancient Greek and Roman writers, and described under the general appellation of melancholy. Pinel also included it in his class Melancholia, as a variety of " mania without delirium." We owe to Esquirol its separation as a distinct morbid condition, and the term monomania ; which, however, was not ,;

or to a conviction susceptible of infinite manifestations. A singleness or simplicity might, indeed, sometimes characterise the onset of the affection, but, in course of time, there would be a disorder of the other feelings, caused by the influence of the diseased sentiment, and

See some valuable remarks on this subject by Mr. Tuke, in his editorial notes to Dr. Jacobi's Construction and Management of Hospitals for the Insane, 1841, p. 187.

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by their own deficient exercise. In this way may be explained the frequent change of complex sentiments, the question of priority and succession in which cannot often be determined, and owing to which, some writers, as M. Falret, have thought it necessary to introduce classes of oligomania and polymania; Esquirol's term not answering, from the isolation it implies, to express the succession of facts.

which blind the judgment without destroying it, and sometimes without even injuring it, with regard to any matters foreign to the delusion entertained.

Hence it is evident that each sentiment may be the agent of a special aberration. The division of Esquirol cannot, therefore, except for practical purposes, be retained; but we must, with M. Ferrus, admit two great orders, general and partial mania.

Partial insanity is not necessarily restricted to a single sentiment, several moral or instinctive lesions may concur, and it is susceptible of intermediate shades. It does not assume, as an exclusive feature, either sadness or hilarity; and its varieties are numberless.

The term lypomania is, moreover, open to objection. More expressive than melancholia, for which Esquirol substituted it, its characters are still not sufficiently precise; so that even some of Esquirol's cases of monomania might equally well be classed with lypomania. The mental depression made use of to characterize this The questions arise, how far is the understanding to state is not a pathognomonic sign of an alteration con be valued in its exercise and manifestations? and, how stantly identical; but, on the contrary, the expression far is the general mental state affected, through the often of the result of the most varied and dissimilar reciprocal relations between the faculties, by the discauses. The term lypomania does not, therefore, re-ordered sentiment ?

present an actual fact, that is to say, an exact notion Every mental result implies the concurrence of all of a disease. It stands in the same category with the word asthma, which formerly represented any disorder attended with difficult breathing.

A fundamental distinction should be made between the intellectual and the moral and instinctive faculties; such are the feelings (sentiments), passions, inclinations, internal senses, aptitudes, etc. To the formerthe intellectual-belongs, so to speak, the monopoly of the formation of thought. It is the understanding alone that conceives ideas, aggregates them, evolves inductions and resolutions, and dictates actions therefrom. On the contrary, the moral and instinctive forces are but promoters and auxiliaries to the intellectual; they furnish the elements of action and the opportunities of exhibiting them.

the intellectual powers; and every partial irregularity entails an irregularity of the whole. With the instincts, however, the same law does not exist: the independence of their action is a distinctive feature. If the action diverges, and, by the exercise of one feeling, others are evoked, this correlation has always its limits. The same law applies to the moral feelings. One sentiment does not necessarily entail another, but, on the contrary often precludes it. Opposite emotions will follow one another rapidly; under the influence of powerful emotion or abstraction, the sharpest pains are forgotten; and the most overbearing passion has its intermissions and paroxysms.

The morbid state cannot entirely destroy this functional individualism. When the lesion, extended and

it is easily conceivable that it may bring about, by its ceaseless oppression of the mind, inertia, or apparent incoherence of thought. Such a mastery of one emotion is often seen as a physiological result; thus, in the case of fear, or of jealousy, where the reason becomes clouded, and the mind a prey to numerous chimeras, giving rise to inconsistent and extravagant conduct.

This distinction seems to elucidate the subject. Sup-strengthened by time, has multiplied false impressions, posing either of these divisions separately attacked, is it not presumable that the lesion must not only vary in symtomatic accidental conditions, but contrast also in the essence and in the form of the delirium? If, for example, the lesion affects the understanding, the functional irregularity will be displayed incessantly, both as to the feelings and on all subjects; the delirium will be general, by reason of the setting loose of the ideas. If, on the other hand, the change is seated in one or several of the other faculties, the logical act (reasoning) may still be accomplished, the attention be fixed, the judgment operative, voluntary determinations practicable, and coherent conversation continued. Then, as in excessive passion, vicious appreciations will be manifested, false convictions, ridiculous notions, and chimerical fears take root; irresistible impulses, extravagant, outrageous, and destructive actions be indulged in the patient will behave as a madman, though he, at the same time, preserve the power of reasoning. The delirium, lastly, may be more or less circumscribed or partial, including in itself impressions and ideas associated (afferent) with the affected sentiment.

Daily observation confirms all this, presenting to us two definite groups of the insane, according as their malady has an intellectual or sentimental (emotional) origin: the former characterized by general aberration, or more or less absolute impotence of thought; the latter, by the domination of exclusive preconceptions,

What, then, is confirmed partial insanity, but a more or less permanent image of such a transitory state? Daily subjugated more powerfully to the influence of his ever expanding insane convictions, the patient, if not absorbed in his world of fancies, becomes sensitive on every point; his attention can rarely be fixed on any subject; the settled delusion will not admit an association with any topic raised in conversation, exposing its fallacy; not, however, that the mind cannot act on right impressions, but it is prevented so doing, just as a violin cannot produce harmony, if a broken string, instead of being altogether removed, strikes against the rest.

If such be the course of confirmed aberration, the reverse is that of restrained disorder, which most cases are instances of at their origin. The period of incubation is especially long in emotional (sentimentale) insanity. The evident outbreak oftentimes does not reveal itself until after years of internal conflict. The delirium, isolated, as yet feeble and not rooted, without enlarged conviction, and without permanence, does not preclude all energy, all sustained will, all regular oc

cupation. Society includes numerous monomaniacs, and peculiar looking tongue; this form of diarrhoea is who, in spite of the isolated disorder of their emotional of a dysenteric character, and requires quite a different faculties, do not neglect their social duties, who watch treatment to the other; all astringents and opiates, their interests, and even hold the mastery over their though seeming to relieve for a time, really do harm; inclinations, who are discoverable to the attentive ob- the symptoms return with greater violence, and often server, only from involuntary distractions. Numerous wear out the patient. We were once in the Lincoln examples of such individuals could be collected; as Hospital for the insane, infested with this diarrhoea to a also of others, themselves conscious of the error of their great extent; our physicians and board took the matimaginations. ter into consideration; it was attributed partly to vegetables and fruit; the vegetables were ordered to be rooted up from the garden, and fruit was forbidden; but the disease became worse and more fatal than before. I had been much at sea, and had observed this disease in connection with scurvy on shipboard. It always broke out in connection with scurvy; the same kind of tongue existed with scurvy, and the latter disease often terminated fatally with this kind of diarrhoa. In port, diarrhoea and scurvy ceased at the same time: the two diseases appeared to be produced and to be cured by the same means.

It has been said, that the judgment in monomanias is perverted. If by this be intended that the integrity of the moral powers is compromised, that the boundaries of good sense are decreased, the limits of healthy appreciation more restricted, the proposition may forthwith be admitted; for such concession does not imply, as to the lesion, a unity (solidarité) between the two orders of the mental powers. But as the word judgment has various acceptations, the statement is obscure; and, on giving that faculty the signification before indicated, viewing it as an abstract power, and as one form of intellectual operation, the conclusion actually becomes false. In a word, the product has been confounded with the machine, the work with the instrument.

From these facts I concluded that dysenteric diarrhoa frequently made its appearance, in consequence of the diet being deficient in fresh vegetables and fruits, and in vegetable aroma. I am of opinion that vegetable aroma is necessary to health. In the cases of scurvy, pure citric acid has no effect, but the aroma of the lime appears to be an important adjuvant.

The opponents of our doctrine assume that monomaniacs do not recognise the error of their delusions; and that, if they did, they would not be madmen. But, besides excluding many mental aberrations from The investigations of Dr. Garrod prove the imthe list, this opinion is untenable on its own hypo-portance of potash in the prevention and cure of thetical grounds. Physiologically, the man under the influence of violent and continued passion, rarely has a clear notion of its morality or effects: the thought only of a bitter enemy will kindle a blind hatred, uncontrolled by reflection or calculation. Pathologically, on the contrary, among the morally insane, how many of them do we not reckon in whom the pernicious conviction is not at all times predominant, who do not shew themselves ready (however transient may be the impression) to deny their errors, while under what they conceive to be hostile observation.

Their tenacity against arguments is otherwise very explicable; when the circle of false ideas is enlarged, no argument is possible without involving them and so exposing them, that, far from eradicating them, their activity is only thereby augmented.

We may conclude, therefore, that monomania-or better, emotional madness-may be compatible with the exercise of the intellectual functions.

scurvy; but, from many facts which have come to my knowledge, I am convinced that vegetable aroma is also of much importance. Dr. Christison suggested the idea many years ago. I had heard, but before I saw it myself, I could not believe that sailors recovered of scurvy when they lay near shore, although their diet was not altered. Four cases of scurvy under my own care, got well in the Hooghly, although they did not change their diet. I do not see why the smell of the shore, so grateful to an animal function, should not also be grateful to a vital one: or why, if bad effluvia can produce disease, air loaded with aromatics should not be conducive to health. All nations take aromatics in some shape or other, and it appears probable that these luxuries, so bountifully provided by a kind Providence, are not merely intended for the gratification of our appetites, but are intended to serve also in the preservation of our health.

There are aromatics in daily use, almost as efficient This brings us to the discussion of the subject in its as that of the lime: as tea and coffee, the hop used in legal bearings.

On the Prevention of Dysenteric Diarrhea in Asylums, by F. D. WALSH, ESQ. M.R.C.S., Medical Superintendent of the Lincoln Hospital for the Insane.

The diarrhoea which occasionally prevails in asylums is of two kinds: one may be called, and is simple diarrhoea (D. Crapulosa); there are no constitutional or febrile symptoms; this form is generally cured with ease by some astringent, by small quantities of opium, or some other simple remedy. The other kind is attended with febrile symptoms, yeasty and fawn-colored stools; but the most peculiar symptom of all is a red

beer, and, above all, wine. In ships where these articles of diet are freely used, there is no scurvy or dysenteric diarrhoea.

In returning to England with invalided soldiers from Chusan, we never had scurvy in the cuddy; among the men, however, we had it all through. From St. Helena to home, though they were fed entirely on fresh meat, the scurvy and diarrhoea, with a red tongue, continued to prevail, and men died daily. From this experience, and also from some observations I had made in Scotland, where we never had this diarrhoea in an asylum where the patients partook plentifully every day of a food they call kail, made up of all the vegetables in the garden, with a very little meat, I was convinced that the dysenteric diarrhoea

(a physician) cites the deterioration which took place in the health of his own children, from discontinuing the use of fruit, on a change of residence from the country to town. "On first removing my family to town, the usual supply (i. e. of fruit) being cut off, two or three of the younger ones became affected with obstinate diarrhoea and dysentery, which resisted all the ordinary modes of medical treatment. opinion on the subject afterwards induced me to give them a good proportion of fruit every day, as grapes, oranges, ripe apples, when all the symptoms presently subsided, and they have never since been troubled with bowel complaints or skin eruptions to any noticeable extent."-ED.


prevalent in the Lincoln asylum might be owing to deficiency of fresh vegetable food in the dietary. Therefore I proposed, that instead of destroying the garden vegetables, the patients should have some every day without fail, and that ripe fruit should be given once a week at least; as the disease was confined to the pauper patients, who did not get tea or coffee, and did not occur amongst the better class, who took them, with fruit and vegetables every day, I also proposed that every pauper should take either tea or coffee every day. The Board and physicians agreed to this proposal, and copied my report, with the proposed alteration in the dietary, on the minutes. Since that time, which is four years ago, we have had no dysenteric diarrhoea; occasionally our patients have had relaxed bowels, but not of the inflammatory kind; it has been cured by the usual simple remedies, by On the Headdress of Pauper Lunatic Men, by the leaving off vegetables, and giving a few astringents or chalk mixture. Since the period referred to, there has been a report of the Sanatory Commissioners advocating the use of fresh vegetables and fruit.


If this question were one of taste alone, and if the head-covering were merely an ornamental finish to the dress, it might readily enough be answered by a plurality of proverbs indicating that each man's was the best for himself.

The native practitioners in India often cure dysentery (chronic) where the European practitioners fail. They give no medicine, but keep the patients entirely on cooked fruits. These native apothecaries themselves eat bannanas or plantains every morning, to protect themselves against dysentery, and to keep the bowels regular. They never eat fruit late in the day: I give my patients fruit before 11, A.M., after dinner I think it is injurious. Celsus gives the same remedy for the same disease. "Si vero medicamentis utendum est aptissimum est id quod ex pomis fit." He then recommends a great many kinds of fruit to be boiled together. I did not, however, give fruit for the cure of the disease, but for the prevention of it. I had an instruc-precise and symmetrical regularity. tive case from the dispensary (attending for a friend); a female had diarrhoea for eight months, she had taken every remedy, her paper was filled with prescriptions of all kinds; she was forbid all fruits and vegetables, she had a quick pulse, her tongue red and almost blistered, she had great thirst. I gave her no medicine, but forbade meat, and told her to live principally on ripe fruits. The diarrhoea ceased in a few days, in a fortnight she was quite well. It is evident that astringents and opiates do harm in such cases, making the tongue foul and red, and exciting thirst; purgatives are better, for the purging produced by the disease is merely an effort of nature to carry it off. One remedy I used in India,

Nothing determines the character of a man's appearance more than the garment which he wears upon his head; on this account a gentleman will always, if possible, possess himself of a good and a becoming hat. A lady is in nothing so particular as in the exact shape and material of her bonnet; the Mussleman adjusts the folds of his turban with discriminating skill; and even the 'Chactaw' does not believe himself to be the perfect type of a hero, unless the eagle feathers are arranged from os frontis to occiput in

Pil Hydr., gr. ii.

Pulv. Ipecac., gr. ii.

Extract Gentian, gr. ii. given in a pill morning, mid-day, and evening. The next morning half an ounce of castor oil, with twenty drops of laudanum. This I have often known to cure the disease. As a preventive, however, the diet mentioned above has been most effectual. At this place, when good ripe fruit cannot be obtained, some pecks of apples slowly roasted in an oven, are used by the patients instead. Raw apples require more mastication than they are likely to obtain.

[The opinions expressed in the above article receive confirmation from a clever letter on this subject addressed to the Times, on the 3rd instant. The writer

What in architecture the capital is to the pillar, in the habiliments of man the headdress is to the costume.

The superintendent of a pauper lunatic asylum, however, though his functions are indeed most diversified, is not often called upon to act in any matters as arbiter elegantiarum. He must seek for principles to direct his choice, which, if not hostile to the rules of taste and lines of beauty, are at least independent thereof, and recommended to him by more substantial and utilitarian advantages.

In this, as in many other matters, his guiding principles must be sought for in the laws which promote health and conduce to comfort and economy.

On the score of health it will be readily granted, that the best headdress is that which will best protect the head from extremes of temperature, whether from the winter cold or from the fierce rays of the July sun, productive of congestive headache and frequent epilepsy, sometimes even in this country more than suggestive of coup de soleil.

The man of business and of pleasure, who regards his health and comfort, and possesses the requisite means, provides himself with various head-coverings. Besides the regulation pot, as the Mussleman calls the Frankish hat, he has his yatching oilskin, his cricketing straw, his travelling cap, to say nothing of his gossamer, gibus, and crush. He finds it as necessary to the most ordinary comfort to adapt his head-clothing to circumstances, season, and weather, as to modify

for the same reasons the covering for his feet. He would as soon think of plunging gun in hand into wet turnips in a pair of patent leather Wellingtons, or of making his way into a box of the Italian Opera in well clouted high-lows, as of neglecting to avail himself on all possible occasions of the most appropriate, that is, of the most comfortable headdress.

veloping it in folds of white linen. If, in the pursuit of business or pleasure, he mounts a hat, it must be a white or light colored one, for he well knows, that of a black hat he would be compelled to say, it is "darkness which may be felt."

Even in the temperate climate of this country, many a headache would be spared to its inhabitants by the But with the poor man it is different. If he be one adoption of white or light colored hats during the of those who have been miscalled nature's aristocracy, summer season. And we can state from somewhat namely, a wild and unkempt savage, his head will be extensive observation, that a white head-covering in well protected by the author of the patent of his hot sunny weather affords much comfort to the insane. nobility: within the tropics a dense casque of wool Little need be said of texture in relation to temperawill present a most imperfect conductor to the vertical ture; because, if a space be left between the head and rays of the sun, and to his Numidian noddle an efficient its covering, the interposed air affords the best of all safe guard. In the inhospitable regions of the north | non-conductors. To provide such a space is of much his headpiece will be covered with a "thick fell of na- importance. In caps for the insane it may be maintural hair," densely matted together, thick enough tained either by making the sides of stiff material, or to afford warmth, devoid of frizzy texture so useful by keeping the crown tense and flat by means of a to his black-skinned brother, but lying like thatch on ring of cane in its circumference. A flat crown can a penthouse roof to shoot off rain from eyes and ears only rest upon the head on one spot, around which the and neck. desired space is maintained between the two. A hat Civilization crops his mane, and after years of crop-is now made for Indian wear, the excellence of which ping it becomes a very degenerate affair. When this depends upon the head being surrounded and surhas taken place, substitutes become necessary. If mounted by such a layer of air. It is, in fact, a double possible, the substitute should be varied with varying hat, and acts on the principle of a double window to circumstances, but if restrained by poverty or economy a house; with this difference, however, that in the one one substitute must be made to do duty at all times. case the layer of air impedes the transmission of heat A freeborn Englishman in the possession of his liberty from within outwards, and in the other case from may wear what he likes upon his head; he may even without inwards. No skull cap can possibly be a cool sport a steeple crowned hat above a red neckcloth, and efficient head covering; and, on this account, the without fear of police : a privilege not accorded at the felt caps, known as jim-crows and wide-awakes, are in present time to all Europeans. our opinion objectionable for the use of the insane.

But when this liberty is lost, and disease brings him to the condition of the well-governed peoples of Europe, with others to choose for him in most matters, freaks and whims of taste must be avoided. A good choice is the more necessary when the habiliment is to cover a head containing a brain morbidly diseased, liable to any noxious influence, and, on account of blunted sensation or perception, often incapable of recognizing such influence.

Lightness also is a matter of much weight-or, perhaps one ought to say, of much consequence. We most of us know from personal experience the discomfort of a heavy headdress; and the use of a heavier hat than usual is, with most people, a sure recipe for a headache. Soldiers, it is true, are often compelled to wear enormous loads of leather or metal; but this is accounted for on the principle, that with them the protection of the skull is of much greater importance than the pro

The greater then becomes the necessity that all pos-tection of the brain. sible good qualities should meet and combine in it. These qualities are the power of protecting from heat and cold, lightness, ventilation, cleanliness, a convenient shape, cheapness, and durability.

The first quality will depend to some degree on texture, but still more on color, or rather, as we shall find, on want of color.

Some years ago, stout good looking felt hats were in fashion at Hanwell; from which place their use was adopted by ourselves. Our patients, however, complained of their weight, and they were discarded.

The same objection of weight applies to straw hats of rustic plait, made with entire straw; and these are the only kind of straw hats which will bear the rough usage of gardeners or labourers. Hats of split straw are soon knocked to pieces.

Ventilation. The escape of moist and heated air can scarcely be interrupted from any head-covering made of textile fabric. Felt caps and hats, however, are impermeable to air, which fact constitutes against them another objection. Should they be worn, a few small holes punched in them will render them much more comfortable.

White substances least radiate heat and absorb it with less facility, than colored or black substances. White habiliments, therefore, keep in the heat of the body, and keep out the rays of the gun better than others. (See Count Rumford's experiments on this point.) The difference between the warmth-preserving qualities of a black and of a white hat worn in winter may not be very remarkable; but the difference between their heat-repelling qualities in summer is great and important. The European officer on Indian service must continue to wear his regulation shako, but finds himself compelled to slip a snow white covering over it. When he seeks amusement in pigsticking or other sport, he must convert his hunting or sporting Cost. This crowning article of male attire is usually cap into the similitude of a degenerate turban, by en- so durable, that the question of cost cannot be con

As for cleanliness, it may be preserved with any variety of clothing: a pigstye may be kept clean with a little trouble. Cleanliness, however, announces itself most distinctly from a white surface.

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