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applaud, bless, humble, mock, reconcile, recommend, exalt, entertain, rejoice, complain, refuse, despair, wonder, exclaim, keep silence, and what not; and all this with a variation and multiplication even to the emulation of speech."

Mr. Outis, in his book on "The Void in Modern Education," declares that the great want is an integral education of our various faculties; the culture of the whole human creature instead of a fraction of it, to take the place of the present system, which develops the intellect to the total neglect of the emotional nature: like expanding the boiler, and leaving the furnace unenlarged. The whole scale of graduated animal life exemplifies commensurate development, and the whole scale of social life demands commensurate development. He owns to a cordial interest in art, and confesses that it was while contemplating the perplexed difficulties of English education generally that a discipline in the graphic art-a training of taste, eye, and hand in behoof of beauty and expression-appeared to him with more and more certainty the missing educational element.

While sympathizing in the views of this author as far as they go, a simple extension of the same thought enables us to see that not only do intellect and emotions exist, but that there can be no symmetrical development of the whole man which overlooks the wonderful phenomena of our physical nature. A thousand errors combine to make us wish that the science of human life was better understood and more generally made an indispensable part in the studies of our schools. I know it is often objected that too many things are taught, and that the tendency is to introduce still more. However true this remark may be with regard to astronomy, botany, spell

ing and defining, or the ancient classics, certainly the study of our own physical organs should stand upon a different footing, since upon a knowledge of their operation and capacity depend our health, strength, and the refinement of our intellectual and emotional faculties. As it is a branch of the same problem, I may be indulged, at the risk of a brief digression, with a suggestion in regard to the training of all the powers and functions of our physical organization. They constitute the forces of living beings and furnish the means of self-preservation. A man may not be able to tell whether Jupiter has four or six satellites, but his ignorance does not disturb their harmony; he may be unacquainted with the marvelous processes of vegetable life, but that does not prevent the plants from maturing into the full perfection of their beauty; he may never have learned the difference between an acid and an alkali, but chemical affinities will display their wonders in spite of all that. It is not so, however, with the structure of our bodies and the laws of physical life. There is a vast portion of human knowledge belonging to special pursuits, and whoever engages in any of these requires a training in the special science or art relating thereto. But a knowledge of the laws of physical development is equally essential to all men. Our external faculties are few, being computed at five, yet in their endowment and operation they are so intermingled and combined as to impart to our outward movements and actions an almost infinite variety of use and expression. When properly trained and in their natural play, they work together like the parts of a well-regulated machine, and the sensory nature moves on to a still larger correspondence with whatever enlarges the mind and brightens the life of man.



Industrial history in France-Her skilled labor and prosperity-Art-schools and the excellence of her fabrics-British trade-Its effect on Europe -Schools on the Continent-The École municipal d'Apprentis in Paris-School at Besançon-School of the Christian Brothers-The École professionnelle of MM. Chaix et Cic.-School at Creuzot-Count Hasrach-Weaving-school at Mulhouse and Epinal-Industrial education at Limoges-The École des Arts et Métiers-Government aid to art education in France-State aid discussed-Belgium, Germany, Bavaria, Würtemberg, Nuremberg-The French commission -Schools in other countries of Europe.

THAT education has to do with manual training, is a fact that has been recognized in the educational systems of nearly all civilized nations; and the effect of it upon the useful arts and upon the greatness and happiness of a people has not been better illustrated in modern times than in the industrial history of France. Not many centuries have elapsed since only the great and rich were able to have domestics who were qualified to supply them with some articles of trade in common use. Occasionally an artificer working alone, without influence and without wealth, would furnish an article of beauty, or decorate a church or an altar-piece with consummate grace. But the industrial classes were for the most part in a debased condition. We know that this is changed, and that the most

thorough artisans in the world are found in France, and that the whole earth now pays tribute to her art and taste. She has been devastated by mighty wars; her people have been sacrificed by millions; her expenditure has been almost beyond computation, and yet to-day she is, next to Great Britain, the richest of all nations, while perhaps her people are the happiest in Europe. We can remember her spoliation in the Franco-Prussian War, and the heavy indemnity with which she was compelled to ransom her peace; and we can also remember how she arose as if by some supernatural influence from a prostration which would have indefinitely destroyed the industries of almost any other nation, and attained at a single step to the summit of prosperity. Just exactly how this was managed puzzled those who did not consider her cultivated. arts. She had a monopoly in the markets of the world for many kinds of commodities which depend upon design and finish, and in which she had scarcely a competitor. Her skilled labor brought in its account against the world, and every civilized nation contributed to her prosperity. The foundations of her success were laid when art-schools were first established for the instruction of her children. Drawing and designing were taught to thousands of pupils, and their eyes and tastes were at the same time instructed by the beautiful statues and pictures of the masters. These schools have been multiplied until they exist in all the cities and manufacturing communities in France; and the French workman has become the most accomplished artisan that the world has ever seen. An annual importation into this country alone of three or four hundred millions worth of the productions of French industrial art is evidence that it is not the pauper labor

of Europe, but skilled labor of the highest order, that affects our own industries.

The establishment of these schools by the French accounts largely for their superiority in architecture, engraving, and pottery, as well as for the beauty and elegance of their silks, satins, muslins, and brocades; and perhaps it is not too much to say that in all the arts applied to industry the superior excellence of their fabrics is confessed by other manufacturing nations. It is not, therefore, surprising that France has given such a splendid example of industrial or art education.

This was undoubtedly to a considerable extent the work of necessity. Great Britain had spread her dominion until with the reveille of her drums, which followed the sun around the globe, her commerce and manufactures were carried even beyond her conquests or colonial possessions. Nowhere had there ever been presented such a combination of facilities for industrial art. She possessed accumulated capital, and her crowded population furnished practiced and cheap labor. These with her abundance of coal, iron, ships, steam-engines, ingenious mechanics, enterprising merchants, hardy sailors, and splendid navigators to carry her products to the ends of the earth, had afforded grounds for the boast of her historian that she was the workshop of the world. The Continental nations viewed this prodigious increase of British manufacture and trade with an eager solicitude; and France, Germany, Switzerland, and others were roused to a determination not to be satisfied without attaining a superiority in all the departments of useful art. Hence came schools of various names but with the same general purpose, adapted to local necessities and the industrial education

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