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on these subjects is apparent, for upon them, as guides and instruments, must largely depend the future industry and happiness of the people. The application of the exact sciences to the processes of industry is a matter of the deepest interest to the inventor, the artisan, and the manufacturer. Education ought to be adapted to this state of society in order to prepare men and women for the active spheres of their future work. The time has, therefore, come when preparatory studies should be placed in the programmes of public instruction, especially to teach the natural laws which affect the different trades, together with exercise in hand-work, and the use of tools in general practice, in order to fit the young to master the special industry they intend to pursue.

3. Whether the learning of trades is a proper part of public education is a problem which must be finally determined by the utilitarian struggle our lot in this country demands. The prejudices against it are relaxing, and we may be sure that whatever will bear the test of application, and the observation of a rigorous comparison, will ultimately be established by the gradual process of evolution. Since the decay of apprenticeship, the industrial school will originate in the necessities of our civilization; for it will deal with that kind of study which bears most vitally upon the personal welfare of the industrial classes, and is equally necessary to maintain our superiority in the social and material activities of life.

4. Passing from the vexed question of trades in the public schools, the art of drawing ought to be taught in them all, on account of its refining influence, as well as for the reason that it is the basis of all trades that depend upon design, and the students should be systematically

instructed to work out the designs, and in the principles of perspective, and of color, light, and shadow; also to prepare patterns for textile fabrics, ornamental carving in wood, and ornaments for glass, for pottery, for marble, for stone, and for embroidery. They should also acquire the practice of numerous arts which can be easily learned by those who can draw and the rudiments of practical industry, the use of tools, and a knowledge of a variety of substances connected with industrial art. This would afford a great amount of auxiliary knowledge in any industrial career they might enter upon.

The foregoing summary presents some of the points to be discussed in the following chapters. The claims of technological education, and its condition in this country, have already been referred to, and its scope and purpose have been exhibited as of the highest importance to all industrial pursuits alike, especially where workshop practice has been introduced to teach the students the application of scientific theories to industrial purposes. We have also seen that institutions of this kind exist, or may exist, in each of the States by the bounty of Congress. But the great mass of the children can never reach them, and their only opportunity for acquiring any special knowledge preparatory to practical work must be taught them in the common schools. The workshops, which may be characterized as the last hope of our industrious youth, are closed against them, and apprenticeship exists only in name. If there is no industrial art in the ordinary schoollessons, their lot must be hard indeed.

If it be true that studies should be pursued not only for their influence as an intellectual discipline, but also

for their efficacy npon the pursuits and habits of the people, how can this degree of instruction be withheld, especially since it also exerts a powerful influence in producing wealth, in checking evil, and promoting good? The State has clearly a right to look into and direct the particulars of an education which it freely bestows; and it is the interest of the State that there be no illiterate minds, and that every child should be provided with the preparatory information connected with his future calling. The necessity for industrial education of some kind is so evident that the American Institute of Instruction, at its recent session in Saratoga (1882), appointed a committee upon the subject, and John S. Clarke, of Boston, who was secretary of the committee, among other points, reported the following:

4. Collaterally with this training of the senses, and this study of man, there should be proper training in the use of language for the purpose of receiving and expressing thought abstractly; and also proper training of the hand in the use of tools for the purpose of expressing thought concretely.

A foot-note expresses the meaning of the last clause

to be:

The tools here recommended are such hand and machine tools as are used fundamentally in the manipulations of wood, stone, and metals-the hammer, saw, plane, chisel, gauge, square, file, lathe, planer, milling-machine, etc.

A discussion ensued on the subject of industrial education in the public schools, which was characterized by great diversity of views, and a motion to lay the subject on the table was carried by a vote of sixty in the affirma

tive to twenty in the negative. There is to be accorded to this body the highest rank among the educators in the United States, and, while the predominating feeling was unfavorable to any definite conclusion without further investigation, it is to be regarded as a sign of progress that such a distinguished body of teachers should earnestly consider the subject, and impart their convictions to others.

In matters of education the empire of habit is singularly powerful, and innovations can only be accomplished by steady and persistent effort. Industrial education is the imperious demand of the times, and yet able and learned men will find themselves in unfriendly relations with the necessary reforms. We can remember how difficult it was to impress the principles of the equality of science with the classics upon our colleges. The cause of science has, however, been substantially gained, and the universities are now vying with each other in offering facilities for scientific studies.

The future is before us, and the cause of education can but be benefited by the agitation.

CHAPTER VII.

The art of drawing-Natural order of studies begins with it-The lesson of things-Effect of, on industrial education-Indispensable in education -Massachusetts and New York-Branch of primary education inPrejudice against it-Practical use of drawing-Exhibit at Centennial-French commission at-Experience at Taunton-Women's Art School, Cooper Union-Walter Smith's system-Drawing ought to be directed to the industries-Beauty of outline-It is teaching every trade that depends upon design-Involves easy lessons in geometry, botany, architecture, and history-Geometrical drawing first-Ornament-Its almost universal application in the olden time-Then came utility alone―The working artist-Improvement of public taste-Effect upon our industries-Mr. Outis's work-Drawing in France-French styles-Expenditures for teaching it-The reason of her beautiful works-Great Britain-Her expenditure to promote the art of drawing -Drawing as a branch of study in this country-Common schoolsThe importance of drawing to various industries-Architecture in New York-Importation of workmen for building.

THERE is one study which lies at the basis of all the constructive arts, and which has been made a branch of primary education to the children of the poor as well as of the rich in all the systems of public instruction in Europe. I refer to the study of the art of drawing. Its importance as a branch of industrial education will justify the space devoted to its consideration.

This art was formerly valued only in its relation to the fine arts. But now the useful can no longer exist

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