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of the people. First established on anything like a general footing in France, and afterward in Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland, they have been the means of contributing to the splendid industries pursued in the principal cities and towns of Europe.

Here the workmen are trained intellectually in their special art, and the manufactory, the workshop, and the school-room are not unfrequently combined in the same system of education and reciprocal dependence.

In the present condition of the useful arts it is necessary that workmen should understand the theory of their handicraft. The ideas which have prevailed in Europe have been developed for a number of years in an almost endless variety of schools; and although those schools embrace a very great diversity of organization, and are directed to educating workmen in every species of industry above the rudest labor, yet they all agree in imparting a mixed system of literary and technical instruction. For example, take one of those recently established in Paris, the Ecole municipal d'Apprentis. It was founded at the expense of the city, and began its work in 1872. No pupil is admitted before the age of thirteen. The course of instruction lasts three years, about half the time being given to schooling and the other half to practical work in one or other of the workshops. Professor Thompson, after having visited this school seven times, writes that "the results attained by this school are truly striking." When we come, in a subsequent part of this work, to discuss the feasibility of combining industrial with public school instruction, we will transcribe a more particular description of it, from a recent publication, as probably the finest example of an

ideal industrial school. It is a striking evidence of the force and direction which industrial education has attained in France, and of how much is being done in that country to invest mechanical labor with honorable distinction, by giving to the humblest children the means of practical education, so that by their intelligence and skill they can earn a livelihood and aspire to a condition far superior to their present one.

The famous municipal school of theoretical and practical watch-manufacture at Besançon is an instance of a technical school founded at the expense of the city which is the principal seat of the industry it is designed to promote. Besançon supplies four fifths of all the watches sold in France, and the school has for its object thoroughly to teach the children in the trade they intend to follow. They are taught not only to turn and temper metals and to make the several parts of a watch, but to manipulate atoms as small as the grain of sand that drops through the hour-glass; and their technical education relates to everything having a bearing upon the work, such as arithmetic, mensuration, geography, mechanical drawing, geometry, and composition. When they have completed the course of study, they know how to mark the divisions of time with ease and accuracy for horological purposes, and can graduate the dial of a common watch so that a second-hand in its circuit can be read at each fiftieth of the circle it describes, and the vibrations of a pendulum beating seconds through every hundredth division of its proper arc. Skilled labor in this ingenious art constitutes the wealth of that community; and the public, appreciating the general effect, are willing to incur the burden of its support for the general industrial and commercial ad

vantages conferred by a thorough and educated knowledge of watch-making.

The schools of the Christian Brothers, located in the Rue de Vaugirard, Paris, may be considered a good example of a private institution for ordinary instruction and manual training combined. It has frequently been mentioned by writers with much commendation. The school-buildings form a quadrangle, and the inclosure serves as a play-ground. The students are as young as eight or nine years, but are not put to a trade until they attain thirteen. In the mean while they are instructed in the elementary branches, and, in addition thereto, in architectural and mechanical drawing in outline and shaded, with free-hand drawing and the rudiments of designing as applied to industrial objects. Those destined for an industrial career are, at the age of thirteen, put to learn trades in the workshops connected with the establishment. "Gilding, carving in wood or stone, trunk and portmanteau making, shoe-making, tailoring, weaving, book-binding, astronomical, mathematical, and musical instrument making, are among the trades taught there to one hundred and thirty boys, who spend two hours in the workshop and the remainder at their books." The boys pay about one franc a day for board, lodging, and instruction, and those who are unable to pay the whole amount are assisted out of a fund created for that purpose from the donations of the charitable and the well-wishers of the institution.

The course comprises three years, and the schooling is not only as good as in other schools, but at the end they are well qualified for some useful occupation. The pupils work from drawings, which are mostly prepared by them

selves; for all learn drawing and modeling, and all industrial instruction is given by practical workmen in charge of the shops. Lessons and manual occupations alternate. morning and afternoon. During the third year each pupil settles down to the particular pursuit he most fancies or which is best adapted to his talents. In speaking of the result the director observes: "Our apprentices, being at once fit for useful work on entering the employment, are less often employed to run errands, they are better treated, and steadier. I could tell you of young lads of fifteen who are actually earning two francs and a half and two francs and seventy-five centimes a day, and who in six months more will be paid as regular workmen."

One of the British artisans described his visit to this school as a "grand treat."

Another peculiar development is the interest manifested by large business companies in the subject of industrial education. Some of the finest schools are attached to these establishments. Such is the École Professionnelle in the printing-house of Messieurs Chaix et Compagnie, in Paris. Two hours a day are allotted to lessons in the school-room, which is contiguous to the workshop. The teaching comprises a special primary course for those whose schooling has been insufficient; a technical course, including grammar and composition, reading of proofs, the study of types, engraving, and the reading and composing of English, German, Latin, and Greek, as far as to qualify for type-setting, and a variety of other studies chiefly having a bearing upon the business of printing. The course lasts four years, and the apprentices receive wages according to the work performed. At the end of the apprenticeship the pupils elect, almost without excep

tion, to become employés of the firm, and enter at once into the rank of participants in the yearly division of the profits. Says the writer from whom these facts are taken: "The financial results of these arrangements, at once educational and prudential in their nature, are most encouraging. M. Berger, the accomplished inspector of this department of the enterprise, attributes the substantial growth and prosperity of the business, now one of the largest and wealthiest in France, as much to that influence as to any other. He prides himself upon the superior intelligence of his pupils and their technical knowledge, gained while they are in the very midst of a great business, and thus forced to keep au courant with commercial exigencies. The few who have gone out to take places elsewhere are also doing well."

Aside from the technical and professional training afforded by the schools, there are certain marked features in the establishment which give it the air of a brotherhood. The employés and apprentices are organized into several institutions, forming a system of mutual benefit to promote the interest and welfare of all. Some of these funds are contributed by members themselves, others by assessments upon the profits of the business, and still others by the voluntary gifts made each year by M. Chaix for the benefit of the apprentices. There are also savings-funds and accidental and life insurance funds for the benefit of the workmen. Messieurs Chaix et Compagnie cherish feelings of active personal interest in their employés, and cultivate a fraternal relation with them in all their intercourse and dealings. And the great success which has marked their business career points in more ways than one to the legitimate connection between capi

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