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The art of drawing is used in many cases where its employment is little suspected. Look at a lady in full dress, and consider by what rules her bonnet was plaited, her laces were woven, her stockings were knitted, her comb was ornamented, her ribbons were flowered, her buttons were molded, her necklaces and bracelets were fashioned, her shoes and even the rosettes on her instep were executed; and the answer will be that they were all devised by designs in drawing, and not a single feature of this lovely assemblage was left to chance or accident.

The building of the poor man's cottage is according to plans and specifications. Its boards, beams, roof, and floors are sawed, tongued, and matched to fit each other according to the draughts, as are also the doors and windows of the humble dwelling. The manufacturers of the simplest instruments-like the hoe, the spade, the rake, the pickaxe, the scythe, the sickle, the reaper, chairs, and bedsteads—all have draughting-offices connected with their establishments. The machinist who makes the shears with which the shepherd clips the flock, and the machinery which cards, and spins, and weaves, the fleece into cloth, is dependent upon his practical designs. The mason cuts the stone upon which he bestows such prodigious labor by the same rules. The beautiful work bestowed upon the granite blocks in the Government edifices at Washington, and by which they are made to fit into their places in those magnificent structures like sculptured figures into their niches, although transported hundreds of miles, are prepared by the same means.

We learn from the newspapers that never before were such costly structures in course of erection in New York

(1882). It has been stated that buildings were construct ed last year in that city at a cost of nearly $100,000,000, and that the furnishing and decorations would amount to as much more. Instances are stated of $60,000 having been expended in decorating a single apartment. The taste of her millionaires is expressed in ornamentation of their dwellings outside as well as inside, and workmen are brought over from Europe to carve the stone traceries and figures on their house-fronts. Every figure must be cut by an imported artisan, and, of course, the delay and expense are enormous. One of the wealthy citizens is erecting three buildings of this description, and the ornamental work has to wait till these artists from Europe are ready to do it. Four other elegant mansions are also mentioned, one of which will have a single imported chimney-piece that cost $4,800, made of wood-which is not a scarce article in this wooden country-and a foreign sculptor will design the artistic details of the entrances.

It is useless to find fault with affluent gentlemen because they insist upon having the best. They are able and willing to pay for it. Besides, it is natural for wealth and travel to produce refinement, and, where refinement exists, it is more or less the companion of fastidiousness. It is, moreover, far better for them to spend their money in giving employment to others than to give it away. We should also bear in mind that fine specimens of architecture are among the noblest works of human genius, and symbolize the collective art, science, and wisdom of the people. The aboriginal Greek, who lived in a hovel, had no foreknowledge of the Athenian Acropolis; and perhaps nothing gives us a finer idea of that antique grandeur than its monuments. A temple of

Phidias gives us as sensible an image of Greek character as an ode of Pindar. If the buildings which have invited these remarks will present an arrangement and style illustrating the elements of taste as applied to architecture and the particular ideas of modern life and requirements in our dwellings and public edifices, they will serve as models for the opulent, and will stimulate the sentiments and ambition of our architects, builders, mechanics, and decorators, and so hasten the movement now commenced for art-education as applied to the current facts of our condition.

CHAPTER VIII.

The decorative arts depend upon principles of design - Their position between the useful and scientific-Their immense development-Roman and Greek decoration - Pompeii - Its uncovered ornaments Moorish decoration-Its magnificence and extent — Table-service for the President-Glass-blowers sent to the United States-ImmigrationSkilled occupations of immigrants-The economic value of immigrants -Influx of cheap labor-Exclusion of Chinese-William A. Carsey— An American mechanic on the tariff, cheap labor, etc.-Cheap labor from abroad-Trades-unions limiting the number of apprenticesGrowth of our productive force, and of our population-Skilled labor enriches our industries-"Sheffield is coming to America "-American steel exhibit American porcelain - Palissy Wedgwood - Gladstone's speech-Wedgwood's improvements His beautiful productions-Palissy-Enameled pottery rediscovered by him-Our work in pottery-Our styles and workers obtained from abroad-Centennial vase-New branch of industry-Every potter should be a draughtsman -Drawing as a study-Colored patterns for cotton and woolen fabrics-The use of machinery in printing-Chemistry in that art-Value of drawing in it-It yields the grand secret of modern industry— Universal practice of drawing in skilled work- Should be taught to all-The beautiful is overlooked-It is a universal element in nature.

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It is almost impossible to conceive how many employments accompany a refined condition of the decorative arts. The number of pursuits which they have furnished to skilled labor during recent years have been so great that it is difficult to classify them, or to observe any systematic plan in arranging them; but it is still true that

they all depend upon a knowledge of drawing and the principles of design. The position of these arts is peculiar, for it must be confessed that they are not ranked as purely useful, or as strictly scientific, but rather they divide the ground between these two, and are closely connected with both. These considerations are of growing interest to the intelligent artisan and the far-seeing friend of industrial education, for their development in our day is simply immense. And here a little detail becomes necessary, and the continuity of the argument will occasionally be slightly interrupted by illustrations showing the use of drawing and design in the arts and manufactures, but it will still be drawing, for design is the very soul of art-industry and the perfection of its work.

The character and form of Greek and Roman decoration are illustrated by the rich colorings and beautiful vignettes of Pompeii, that have not lost their luster in all these centuries. Not only mosaics and frescoes embellish the facings of the uncovered dwellings, but the trav eler observes bright pictures of birds, and beasts, and fishes, together with hunting-scenes of the liveliest kind, horses in full chase, wild-fowl and game in the range of a perspective of rocks, rivers, woods, and green hills, upon the walls of a dining-room. In other apartments are seen picturesque and striking ornamental work in great variety, elaborate mosaics and paintings representing figures of animals, scenes from every-day life, and the forms of gods and goddesses, rendered still more effective by the freshness of the overhanging skies and clouds. The marble steps and fountains in the court-yards appear very wonderful, even to those most familiar with such objects. The works of their hands testify how well the Pompeiian

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