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edge of the lines and curves that give beauty to natural objects, and the circles and ellipses which adorn all vital forms. And yet most men go along, as if they were blind, and without the least idea how admirably adapted are all these forms to the purposes and utilities of life. Where the principles of design are fully comprehended, it will be discovered that this universal element of beauty is adapted to the purposes of human culture and improvement, and that, by its proper appreciation, we may embellish our surroundings to any extent we may desire. A boy, who scarcely knows a pencil when he sees it, can drive the plowshare through the rich prairie-soil which responds in a harvest of grain. This is good and useful work. But another boy, who can also raise a crop, and who has had the advantage of an art education, takes a worthless piece of clay and some sand from under his feet, and, mixing them together, gives to the mass a beautiful form, and, placing it in the furnace, burns it in colors that will never lose their freshness or luster, and thus by ingenuity and taste combined produces a vase that brings gold from the rich and applause from all. Ten to one, the outline and details of the design came from his knowledge in drawing.

CHAPTER IX.

Drawing (continued)—The Massachusetts act of 1870-Want of teachersNormal Art School—Current methods of teaching drawing-Professor Krüsi's views-Drawing as an intellectual discipline-It compels observation-Its influence upon the understanding and the imaginationIt is an educational study.

Nor more than twelve years ago (1882) there was probably not a competent teacher of industrial drawing in any of our public schools. To-day there are hundreds, and the number is constantly increasing; and it is especially interesting that the regular teachers are now so well trained in the art that they are giving the best instruction. The public schools of Massachusetts have been foremost in this-educational movement. In 1870, by an act of her Legislature, drawing was made a required study in all her schools.

The second section of the act is worthy of constant reference. It is as follows: "Any city or town may, and every city and town having more than ten thousand inhabitants shall annually make provision for giving free instruction in industrial and mechanical drawing to persons over fifteen years of age, either in day or evening schools, under the direction of the school committee." The statute was a conception of paramount importance, but how could it be carried into practical operation in

the absence of teachers trained in the art, and without plan or system in its execution? At this day we can scarcely appreciate the perplexities of the task. There were no precedents. The legislative act was regarded in many quarters as empirical quackery. A study which was looked upon as purely technical had to be made popular; and what had never been done before was to be accomplished where competent teachers, text-books, courses of study, and even the implements for instrumental instruction, had all to be created. The want of competent teachers was a serious drawback to success. It was like

a ship on board of which all were utterly ignorant of the rules of navigation. In the annual report of the Secretary of the Board of Education for the year 1878 it is stated that

It had been found to be impractical to maintain the evening industrial drawing classes for mechanics, or to introduce drawing into the public day-schools, and thus give effect to the act of 1870, without the assistance of persons properly trained and qualified to give instruction in the subject. From this cause the evening classes languished, and little progress was made in the public schools. It was therefore suggested to the Board of Education that teachers of industrial drawing must be provided, or the act of 1870 would remain inoperative.

This gave rise to the State Normal Art School, which the Legislature established in 1873, for the sole purpose of preparing teachers of drawing for all the other schools of the State. The same difficulty had been experienced abroad and overcome in the same way. The Normal Art School was placed under the direction of Professor Smith, and has been attended with results that elicited the favor

able opinion of the foreign commissioners who visited our Centennial Exposition, especially those from France already mentioned. Special teachers in drawing even in the high-schools are no longer employed, and the regular teachers now do the work, and the pupils are learning more and better than under the rule of specialists. In the report on drawing for 1880 the number of teachers in the public schools of Boston is set down at 1,045, and of these 1,040 have attended the classes in the Normal Art School; or, in other words, all but five of the whole number have been prepared by normal instruction to teach industrial drawing in the public schools of the city, including free-hand drawing, drawing in design, from dictation, memory, model, and geometrical. I do not refer to the statistics of the free evening drawing classes for want of the reports on that subject. These are more particularly designed for the instruction of mechanics and workmen; and when we consider that drawing is at the basis of every constructive art, the knowledge to be derived from its principles must be invaluable in the practice of their trade. The study is conquering its way into favor. Art-education stands high in public favor. Except in special localities a great change has taken place, and it is considered as indispensable to the material success of individuals and communities. Its refining influence is permeating society and elevating labor.

Methods of instruction were adopted in New York and other important cities with equally satisfactory results. But not only were teachers in a less advanced state; the books on drawing were so abstract and technical that they could not be introduced into the public schools with any hope of teaching children. With a

view to the practical development of the art in common. school education, a progressive plan of elementary studies is indispensable-one which presents the primary principles of drawing to the comprehension of the youngest pupils. The children are to be initiated into the language of form, which is not picked up as they do their mother tongue. They must be trained to understand in what exact form consists, and by what means it is produced. The plan generally adopted in our public schools is to lead the students forward by easy steps, teaching them first to draw straight and curved lines on their slates, or from cards prepared for their use; then to combine these lines into various geometrical figures, with explanations of the relation in which they stand to each other as parts of triangles, squares, spheres, oblongs, etc. In some of the most successful systems of teaching, the pupils are also furnished with blocks of various shapes, which they arrange into a great variety of solid figures. This not only excites their interest, but, while arranging the parts into unities, the faculties of representation and invention are exercised in a very marked and practical manner. The characteristic features of each form are discriminated-such as that a square has four angles, that the sides are equal, and the opposite ones are parallel; that a triangle is bounded by three lines, that it has three angles, and that a right-angled triangle has one right angle; the opposite side is the hypothenuse, the other sides are called respectively the base and perpendicular. And in like manner they learn the peculiarities of the numerous figures presented in the early lessons, and the technical terms by which they are designated. They also acquire skill in distinguishing the parts from the whole,

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