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with the most excruciating deaths. The wheel or axle of the locomotive may be unsound in material or model, and the train in its rapid flight plunged over a viaduct, bruising and maiming its living freight, and sending our best and most beloved ones into the grave without warning or preparation. Boilers explode, machines are shattered, owing to defective work of some kind, and the newspapers publish a daily catalogue of disasters more appalling than the carnage of war. The lesser evils are also considerable. Think of the annoyance and discomfort of illconstructed furniture, of imperfect and botchy utensils, and of wretched and degrading forms of household conveniences which still remain! Many methods have been devised to protect us against these dangers and troubles. But among the most effective of all remedies will be the brain and hand guided by the skill in mechanical drawing, that is absolutely necessary to the nature of the work to be performed, or the object to be created.

To Professor Krüsi's "Manual for Teachers" we are indebted for many weighty observations on the practical value of drawing, and from it I borrow the following passages:

Besides its importance as an educational process, drawing is of great practical value in most of the vocations in life. It is indispensable to the highest success in most of the mechanical pursuits. The man who can illustrate his ideas with his pencil rises from the lower to the higher walks of his calling. He plans as well as executes, and he falls naturally into his place as leader and director. The carpenter who draws well becomes foreman, and not unfrequently architect. The machinist who draws, in many instances, becomes a successful in

ventor.

Ability to draw is of great value to the farmer. By its means he plots his ground and divides his fields. By it he plans his house, adapting it to its surroundings and to its uses. By it he is able to describe the peculiar vegetation, the name of which is unknown to him, and the kind of insect which destroys his crop. By it he fashions his utensils and tools, and communicates his thoughts to others in a thousand instances where ordinary language fails.

In the various manufactures, workmen are in constant demand who have some aptitude and skill in designing. In engineering and in architecture, drawing is an integral part of the professional work. Even to those engaged in the learned professions, drawing may be made of use in various kinds of investigation, and in affording amusement for leisure hours.

Indeed, the exceeding importance of the study receives a new impulse, as it is seen that the language of form is essential in all the pursuits of a busy life. The products of industry and the question of education are bound together for the benefit of the rising generation; and the workmen are trained to think, to combine, and to open their eyes to whatever is beautiful in their work. A great change has taken place; and no one can now doubt the capacity of our people for the study of art, either in its application to industry, or to what may be called its æsthetics.

Systems or series of text-books in industrial drawing, upon the progressive plan, have been used in the public schools for several years; and it is gratifying to know that this simple and practical scheme of instruction has effectually contributed to establish this study as a branch of popular education. It is now taught very generally by persons of professional knowledge and practical

experience, who are familiar with the text-books best adapted to the actual needs of the schools; and it is a matter of sincere congratulation that industrial drawing is a recognized study in nearly all the leading cities of the Union.

The study of the art of drawing is also recommended as a means of intellectual discipline. We all acknowledge the powerful influence exerted by the use of language upon mental operations. Says a profound philosopher:*"Man, in fact, only obtains the use of his faculties in obtaining the use of speech; for language is the indispensable means of the development of his natural powers, whether intellectual or moral." Now, drawing is the universal language of form. If speech can be called the mother, drawing is certainly the godmother, of knowledge. The sensible objects which surround us, and the percep tion of their form, dimensions, and color, constitute our knowledge of the external world. We may attempt to describe them in words, but a drawing satisfies and instructs the mind with a precision and rapidity that belong only to the crayon. The power of thinking and the power of drawing are inseparable. It is impossible to succeed in drawing a figure, unless every line is considered in its relation to the object delineated. The whole structure depends upon a balance of details. It is a work of reflection throughout, and the process can only be carried on by forethought at every point of its evolution. A child in committing a lesson exercises the faculty of memory, but he rises in the scale of thought when he arranges a few lines into forms resembling the object which he sees, and to which words can only give a tran*Sir William Hamilton's "Logic," p. 98.

sient expression. In drawing, the mind itself works as well as the hand in elaborating these unmeaning lines into concrete images of vivid and enduring symmetry.

Drawing opens the perceptions of the pupil. He is almost in the obscurity of night, perceiving little and discriminating less in the objects which present themselves. But now his senses are exercised and trained to observation, and it is like light dawning upon the darkness. He not only recognizes whole objects, like houses, trees, and animals, but he discriminates the component parts, he fixes their position and relation to each other. By this means he acquires immediate knowledge in regard to the science of natural objects and also of those created by art. He perceives points of inquiry worthy of attention in everything that flits before the eye. The leaves upon the trees and the blades of grass in the field are regarded with that scrutiny which such an exact study as drawing peculiarly requires. It assists the artisan at his work and the scholar in the highest range of perceptive philosophy.

Its influence upon the understanding is not less salutary. It is a study of the real things in the world around us. Objects which are dim and meaningless to others, are full of methodical arrangement to the student of drawing. He is quick to discern the plan upon which they are organized, and the harmonizing beauty and order in all created things.

By an act of the imagination he invents designs that would be utterly beyond his power, were it not for the forms and rules which drawing furnishes.

A leaf or a flower in the art of drawing can only be produced by the exercise of the faculty of conceiving how lines of different kinds can be combined to represent the

distinguishing parts of these objects, and to show the relation they bear to each other. The stem and the veins in the leaf, the petal and the calyx in the flower, have their peculiar shape and position in forming the whole. The endowment of thought must be exercised so as to combine the lines in the direction best suited to give effect to the different parts of the figure. Whatever the object may be a bronze or a vase-the pupil is required to recognize distinctions, and to shape his outlines to give them the degree of prominence which will be true and harmonious. This work ought to be a model of exactitude and grace, and minute details are to be scrupulously studied.

In a word, the intelligence of the draughtsman is put in action, and he becomes the author of combinations in forms and designs under the impulse or by the inspiration of his own genius. He is distinguished by his singular ingenuity, address, and superiority in the arts of life with which or upon which he is employed.

It is also educational in the true and strict application of that term. To convey any special proportion of the material of knowledge, is properly called education. Drawing is essentially an operation of the intellect, in which the hand, the eye, and other parts of the physical system co-operate. It molds these faculties to certain elements of knowledge both intellectually and physically. Professor Krüsi, to whom I have already adverted, holds that drawing is of the greatest benefit "intellectually in compelling correct observation, and in inciting thought which depends upon observation." It is almost incredible that so little was formerly done to instruct our children in a species of knowledge upon which the useful

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